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Metaphor Essay Essays and Research Papers. English 1302 Dr. Hawley 5/9/2013 Herbert’s Metaphors George Herbert wrote the four year poems: “Alter” and “Windows” that have a good use of . metaphor throughout each poem. Herbert has a good use of metaphor in these two poems that greatly enhances the meaning of them both. The metaphors used have affect over the connotation and the denotation of the adjectives and the analogies that are made with the use of the metaphors “Alter” has a great use of metaphor in art history paper not only the words but also the shape of the. Analogy , Glass , God 861 Words | 3 Pages. English 100 Metaphor in essays about Area Other Than Literature Essay The purpose of metaphor is to conceptualize one . thing in terms of another.

Metaphorical concepts shape and reflect our perceptions, actions, and relations to others (Lakoff and Johnson 1). Essays Four Year Olds. In the field of nursing, many metaphors have emerged which have greatly impacted the about year olds practice of nursing. These metaphors include the “nursing as military” metaphor , which typified nursing during the 19th and paper, most of the 20th centuries, and the “nursing. Diploma in Nursing , Ethics , Florence Nightingale 1303 Words | 4 Pages. What is essays about four year olds a Metaphor ? A Metaphor is an “expression of an understanding of one concept in terms of achieve essay, another concept, where . there is some similarity or correlation between the two” according to about year olds the LinguaLinks Library.

Metaphors are used by anyone trying to convey an assurance analyst, idea in an indirect manner. We use them daily without realizing it. Metaphors put a twist in daily language in that they are a unique way of describing a concept. There are common metaphors that we use everyday and. Concept , Engineer , Engineering 1076 Words | 7 Pages.

Metaphor —a literary technique used to clarify the “darkness inside a cloud” (Selection 2). The power of metaphor is utilized . throughout the world of language on a daily basis to clarify, explain, and act as a moral instrument. Essays Four Year. Metaphor can be described, as it was by Cynthia Ozick, author of The Shawl, as “the mind’s opposable thumb”: just as one cannot grasp objects without an art history, opposable thumb, one can also not write successfully without the year olds aid of critical thinking process steps, metaphor (Selection 1). Metaphor evidently has. Cynthia Ozick , Emotion , Literature 1737 Words | 5 Pages. ?University of Phoenix Material Metaphors Worksheet Insert your name: Part 1 Metaphors Student Response Making . Metaphors Example My daughter is the year olds sunshine of my life. Thinking. Student Response ONE The morning sun is my alarm clock. Student Response TWO My car became a NASCAR because I was late for work. Student Response THREE The monstrous buildings looked down on me as my car glided through their domain.

Student Response FOUR I felt like I was in essays about year olds a coffin being buried in work. Student. Literature , Metaphor , Metonymy 479 Words | 2 Pages. Jessie Edmond Mrs. Cover Letter Quality. Jennings ENG100 1/10/13 THE SHARPEST TOOL IN THE SHED: A RESPONSE TO JOHNSON and four year, LAKOFF’S METAPHORS WE LIVE BY (1980) . Argument is achieve the american dream essay war! Or at least this is what Johnson and Lakoff would have you to believe after reading their 1980 publication Metaphors We Live By. In fact, one should be prepared for battle any time you have a verbal argument with your employer, professor, or family member. This is because, according to Johnson and Lakoff, “The language of argument is not poetic. Christof Koch , Conceptual metaphor , Delusional disorder 1036 Words | 3 Pages. Metaphor Evaluations Paper TDJ University of about four year, Phoenix PHL 251 May 25, 2011 Dr.

E. Cover Letter For Software. S. Team A Metaphor Evaluations Paper . Evaluation of R’s Metaphors R created the metaphors evaluated below he described people and essays, events. Art History Paper. In his metaphors , he wrote about family, his daughters, and a friend and by about olds, his selection of critical, words, he was conveying sensitivity through his descriptive images of them. Through his comparison of their eyes to about year olds the ocean and the stars, it was clear why the research for me ocean would envy such. Analogy , Feeling , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 1330 Words | 4 Pages. The use of metaphors are an important factor with any piece of literature. Metaphors add color to creative writings, also . establishing depth.

A story without metaphors is lifeless, unable to compose another way to essays four year view it. The term for a metaphor is a figure of speech in which term is transferred to something it does not literally apply to, this helps the brain create a mental picture which the person might easily understand what the character is feeling. When a person finally makes. Analogy , Erich Maria Remarque , Human 641 Words | 5 Pages. Metaphors of Organizations All theories of organization and management are based on cover letter for software analyst, implicit images or metaphors that . persuade us to see, understand, and imagine situations in essays about four year partial ways.

Metaphors create insight. Thinking Process. But they also distort. Four Olds. They have strengths. But they also have limitations. In creating ways of seeing, they create ways of not seeing. About Four. Hence there can be no single theory or metaphor that gives an all-purpose point of view. There can be no 'correct theory' for structuring everything. Greek loanwords , Management , Metaphor 1235 Words | 4 Pages.

Analysis of four olds, Metaphor in an Area Outside of Literature. Analysis of Metaphor in can everyone essay an Area Outside of Literature Using a metaphor is an effective way of essays four year olds, persuading others to understand . Research. one’s personal views, social beliefs, and essays about olds, displayed attitude. Metaphors make light of any given situation, having the ability to bring a conversation or story to life. For Me. Metaphors can bring attention to what we are accustomed to as well as describing some of the emotions in everyday life. Usually taking on meaning with what people feel and believe.

There are an abundance of. 2003 albums , American films , Analogy 957 Words | 3 Pages. benefit your life. 70. Finding your feet - To gain confidence in essays about four year olds what you're doing. 71.

A chip on your shoulder - means you think you know a lot 72 . Art History. .High as a kite - means you are drunk or on drugs 73. Sick as a dog - means you are very ill Metaphors 74. Between the essays four year lower east side tenements the sky is a snotty handkerchief. (Marge Piercy, The Butt of Winter) 75. The streets were a furnace, the sun an executioner. (Cynthia Ozick, Rosa) 76. But my heart is a lonely hunter that. Brownie points , Metaphor , Sunsets on Empire 1799 Words | 6 Pages.

The sheer lyrical power of metaphor can be found throughout Ghalib’s poetry. Paper. Ghalib utilizes this figure of speech, I believe, to help us . connect to and really experience what he is trying to tell us about life, love, and hardship. About. It seems that, through metaphor , he implores us to delve deeper into his writings and enter into the suffering, heartache, alienation, and quality assurance analyst, ambition that marked his entire life. Using ghazal’s from the Joy of the about four year olds Drop website, I will examine and discuss the write research verses that. Ghazal , Love , Metaphor 1062 Words | 3 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of essays four year, people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to register for classes?

Did you fit into can everyone the american dream essay, a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. Metaphor for about year life essay,comparing life to a dresser. Metaphor for write research life There are an infinite number of ways for about four year olds a person to describe their life. I think the essays best way is to use a . metaphor . Essays About. Many different metaphors can be used to explain an individual's world. Anything can be used as a comparison, from trees to art history paper furniture. My life would best be described as an everyday piece of year olds, furniture. This piece is unlike any other piece because of the critical thinking steps things hidden inside. There are little cubby holes where objects of importance can be shoved away and hidden.

Conceptual metaphor , Earth , English-language films 900 Words | 5 Pages. Classification and Procedures of Translation of Metaphors. ?OUTLINE Metaphor , its definition and about year, purpose Types of metaphor Dead Metaphors Cliche Stock . Metaphors Adapted Metaphors Recend Metaphors Original Metaphors Methods of metaphor translation Producing same image in TL Replacing image with TL standard image Metaphor to simile translation Metaphor to research simile translation along with its sense Metaphor to sense conversion Metaphor deletion Same metaphor with sense 1. THE METAPHOR AND ITS PURPOSE Metaphor can be defined as an about, indirect comparison. Analogy , Language , Literal translation 1150 Words | 4 Pages. Name: Date: Short Story Essay English 11 Topic: Making reference to three stories in this unit, discuss the authors' use of . literary elements (such as symbolism, setting, irony, characterization) to for software develop their themes. Please note, a key element that you will need to deal with is not only the literary elements, but also the themes (so you will need to clearly identify these). Write your essay here: Three stories including; “The Painted Door” by essays about year, Sinclair Ross, “War” by Luigi. Emotion , Fiction , Luigi Pirandello 988 Words | 3 Pages.

? Slough Commentary Essay Eric Best Mr. Taylor October 10, 2013 ENG3Ud John Betjeman’s poem Slough is a . dark depiction of an English industrial town that has been run down over the years of its existence. Write Research For Me. According to Betjeman, Slough is a truly miserable place and he demonstrates this is his poem through to use of dark metaphors , consistent repetition, and discomforting imagery. The use of dark metaphors in Slough adds to the miserable aura given off by essays four year, the. John Betjeman , Metaphor , Poetry 864 Words | 3 Pages. The Role of year, Metaphor in Counseling. What is the role of metaphor in the development of an essays about four, autonomous client? I've been recently reading about the importance of language in . Epistemology. Resume. Particularly Wittgenstein and his ideas of language and it's role in essays about four year olds our shaping of the world. SLIDE 1: Wittgenstein Thus we turn to the enigmatic realms of process steps, Analytic Philosophy, headed up by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein (1922).

His sentence that We make to ourselves pictures of facts is the summarization of the about four view that; In the picture and. Abstraction , Fiction , Jacques Derrida 1597 Words | 4 Pages. ?Journey Essay By: Jordan White A journey is when one has experienced a dramatic transition in their life, which as a direct result has . changed them physically, mentally or emotionally. Critical Thinking Process. Throughout Peter Skrzynecki’s poetry, he expresses all types of essays about four year olds, journeys during his childhood and how he, through very few words in his poems, dealt emotionally with these alterations. In the poems “Crossing the Red Sea”, “Immigrants at Central Station” and “Leaving Home” Skrzynecki explores the use of poetic. Analogy , Cast Away , Emotion 1041 Words | 3 Pages. ?January 13th 2012 AP English Rhetorical Analysis Essay #3 Final Draft Every individual has traditions passed down from their ancestors. Cover Letter Quality. . This is important because it influences how families share their historical background to preserve certain values to teach succeeding generation. Essays About Four. N. Scott Momaday has Native American roots inspiring him to art history write about his indigenous history and Maxine Hong Kingston, a first-generation Chinese American who was inspired by the struggles of her emigrant family. Analogy , Descriptive technique , Kiowa 848 Words | 3 Pages. Joe Sugg Essay – ? I Stand Here Ironing AP English 4 1-17-15 Essay Prompt Using the short story ? I Stand Here Ironing? , . write an essay in which you analyze the narrative techniques and essays about, other resources of language Olsen uses to characterize the mother and the mother’s attitudes toward her daughter. In addition to can everyone achieve the american dream essay the text, consider background information presented, including the PowerPoint and the interview with the writer. *****************************************************************************************.

Fiction , Laundry , Metaphor 993 Words | 3 Pages. Writing a Compare and Contrast Essay. ?Sample Poetry Analysis Essay : Dylan Thomas- Do Not Go Gently into That Good Night Analyzing Dylan Thomas's Promise: To Rage Against the . Dying of the Light Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night, by Dylan Thomas is essays about year a plea from a dying man's son to steel his reserve and fight against imminent death. Thomas begins by presenting the example of wise men that fight their impending death valiantly, despite knowing that defeat is inevitable. Good men also rage against the dying of the light (Thomas. Death , English-language films , Life 1143 Words | 3 Pages. Literature Review on Metaphors From the Perspective of Cognitive Linguistics The definition of metaphor . Traditionally, metaphor is a figure of speech in which one thing is compared to another by saying that one is the other, as in “He is a tiger”. It is process steps a property of essays year olds, words, and is used for some artistic and rhetorical purpose. However, this view has been challenged recently by cognitive linguists (Liu Wen, 2012: 249). Cognitive linguists and philosophers have shown that metaphors are not just a.

Analogy , Cognitive linguistics , Cognitive science 1198 Words | 4 Pages. literary critic and theorist, provides a brief summary stating the preference for the metaphor over metonymy by aligning analogy with necessity . and contiguity with chance. According to him, “’the element of truth’ is the product of msword create, a purely rhetorical and ultimately metonymical, sleight of hand, therefore over about turning the paper traditional hierarchy and deconstructing the olds very basis for can everyone achieve the american the seductiveness and privilege of metaphor .” Barbara Johnson pays keen and strict attention to a specific passage in her critique. Analogy , Deconstruction , Jacques Derrida 895 Words | 3 Pages. 27 September 2010 Compare the about year olds similarities and differences between two Ballads, Charlotte Dymond and John Lomas. Charlotte Dymond and essays four year, John Lomas, are two . poems which share several techniques. Essays About Year. They also, however are different in many ways. This essay will explore their similarities and can everyone achieve the american dream, their differences and essays about olds, explain reasons why the two ballads are different or similar. For example, both poems have a theme of murder.

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Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is essays four olds a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by critical thinking steps, Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages.

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Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the can everyone essay . This is essays about olds done with a few choice words at paper the beginning of the about four essay : the infamous hook. Analyst. It is not easy to think of how to make someone want to read an essay about a novel. It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. myriad of language techniques for instance metaphors , repetition, oxymoron’s and juxtaposition which create visual images towards their . Essays Year. audience.

Goldsworthy’s ‘Maestro’ is a fictional novel about growing up in essays four olds Australia and seeking to be a performer in music whereas Don McLean’s ‘Starry Night’, is a five verse song dedicated to essays about four the life of Vincent Van Gogh, particularly his painting ‘A Starry Night’. Goldsworthy successfully uses a variety of letter for software quality analyst, metaphors to essays create realistic and original images. Albert Boime , Arles , Metaphor 1138 Words | 3 Pages. decides to emerge from her shell. When she speaks to her middle school friend-turned-enemy Rachel about the event at the summer party, Melinda is accepted . with open arms and forgiven of about four olds, her accusations. Through the symbol of the white couch and the metaphors of the seasonal change and the tree, which is each effectively inserted into Speak, one can tell that a person grows through learning from his experience rather than by mere aging. Most trees are a symbol of life when they are full of leaves in.

Ageing , High school , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 1222 Words | 3 Pages. Greasy Lake Essay In the short story Greasy Lake written by essays year, T.C. Boyle, the story is about three friends who believe they are “bad”. On a . particular night they go out looking for create trouble, and about four year, trouble is what they find. The tone of this story is serious, dark, and very graphic. This story is full of literary devices.

Metaphors and similes come thick and fast on about four year olds, the shores of Greasy Lake, and Boyle never contents himself with one when he can offer two or three. Essays About. The comparisons for their abundance. Automobile , English-language films , Fiction 1359 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Question: the challenge to belong may be resisted or embraced. Msword Create Resume. According to individual choice belonging can be accepted or refused. . About Four Year Olds. Despite inclusion in a place or community, significant connections may not be developed.

An individual identity must be formed in order to establish attachment and fulfilment. Peter Skrzynecki’s “Feliks Skrzynecki” and “Migrant hostel” support and oppose belonging as individual choice. Similarly in “Pleasantville “ by Gary Ross a unique personal contribution. Culture , Family , Individual 875 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of the Metaphor in the “Fisherman” Poem by Kurt Brown. 13 November, 2011 Analysis of the Metaphor in the “Fisherman” poem by Kurt Brown Life is a fishing ocean. This reveals the activities of man . on a daily basis, where man has to go in search of for software analyst, his daily bread and essays four olds, the obstacles that he encounters. Brown’s poem, “Fisherman,” illustrates the sad condition of man and life’s struggles through the metaphor of a fisherman.

Reading the critical poem makes me observe how life is in this period of recession, where man’s ego is far seen but his contentment is appreciated. Emotions , Life , Meaning of life 860 Words | 3 Pages. The Narrative Essay *What is a Narrative Essay ? • Narrative writing tells a story. Olds. In essays , the narrative . writing could also be considered reflection or an create, exploration of the author's values told as a story. The author may remember his or her past, or a memorable person or event from year olds, that past, or even observe the present. • The author may write about: -An experience or event from his or her past. -A recent or ongoing experience or event. . Essay , Essay mill , Metaphor 1511 Words | 6 Pages.

Stevie Smith’s “Not Waving but Drowning” Metaphor. Stevie Smith’s Metaphor of “Not Waving But Drowning” How is it possible to be surrounded by essays four year olds, a million people yet feel so alone? In 1957, . British poet Stevie Smith wrote a short poem, “Not Waving But Drowning,” composed of essays year, twelve lines broken up into three stanzas. The literal words of the art history poem leave the four year reader with the image of a distressed man, thrashing around in the sea as onlookers lying around on the beach watch but do not help, as they believe the frantic man is fooling around and waving. Death , English-language films , Johnny Depp 873 Words | 3 Pages. and disruption for the “busloads” of immigrants arriving at all times.

The use of the metaphor “arrival of newcomers” abolishes any sense of . identity that the refugees may have had left. Cover Letter. The colloquial language of “comings and goings” indicates their transient lifestyle, reflecting the separation from not only a physical dwelling, but also the dominant cultural group changed through time. Essays About Four Year Olds. Further use of the cover letter for software quality assurance analyst metaphor “nationalities sought, each other out instinctively” signifies the longing for connection. Identity , Jacques Lacan , Metaphor 1234 Words | 4 Pages. ?Comparative Essay - The Manhunt vs.

Hour Simon Armitage’s, ‘The Manhunt’ and Carol Ann Duffy’s ‘Hour’ both use strong feelings to emphasize . their core messages. While each author takes a different perspective on essays olds, the nature of these feelings, in the end, both poems have an critical, intense feeling of love at essays their core. Armitage’s ‘The Manhunt’ is about a soldier coming home from the process steps war with various injuries. It is told from the about year point of view of the essays year wife/girlfriend of the soldier. As she slowly helps. Emotion , Love , Manhunt 2 2117 Words | 5 Pages.

Dickinson’s purpose of essays about, this composition is to highlight the difficulty to letter for software assurance analyst belong and to ultimately challenge the socially held notions of the time, referring . to the context of her society, focusing on year, strict religion and traditions. The extended metaphor of hunger, is featured in the quote ‘I have been hungry all the create resume years, my noon had come to dine’. This technique effectively highlights humanity’s innate desire of experiencing a sense belonging, as it is a biological process integral towards the. Emily Dickinson , Human condition , Human nature 806 Words | 3 Pages. and meaning. Being shown everything we also question life’s purpose and meaning. Due to these experiences of betrayal and revenge, Hamlet loses all . happiness towards life when he declares that “the earth, seems to about me a sterile promontory.” This metaphor exposes his sense of isolation in a cruel world which continues to operate normally as he compares the earth as a bare rock formation.

This portrays that his view towards humanity has been lowered to that of a rock. In the critical thinking process Elizabethan Era, humans. Characters in Hamlet , Ghost , Hamlet 1136 Words | 3 Pages. Rigamonti Thesis-Driven Analysis Essay 26 Oct, 2013 Analysis of Matthew Boyd’s Essay Are bees’ the dreadful satanic . creatures that Matthew Boyd describes in about four year olds his essay Striped, Winged, Devils or are they the domesticated canines that lick you to death with their unbridled love? Well I hope to break this down the best way I can from what I picked up on. Now the three main things that stood out in process steps this essay were Boyd’s use of metaphors like “toxic knives” and “domesticated. Bee , Bee sting , Essay 540 Words | 3 Pages. ? Poetry Essay ENGL 102: Literature and Composition Fall B 2013 Jane S. Ciucevich ID# L25513950 Writing Style Used APA . Four. September 15, 2013 Professor Mary Dixon I) INTRODUCTION A. Frost has presented a literal and metaphoric fork in paper the road to a traveler. He must choose between the two roads all the while knowing that by essays about four year, choosing one he must forgo the other. B. “The Road Not Taken” is achieve the american dream all about choices. About Four Year Olds. The road the traveler is walking on has split.

He. Choice , Choice architecture , Decision making 2587 Words | 7 Pages. Summary of the Main Article Metaphor Written by Jorge Louis Borg. ARTICLE METAPHOR Written by JORGE LOUIS BORGES Metaphors mainly . play a big role in our daily life ,for instance we use metaphors when we find it difficult to describe a ‘thing’ or an art history paper, ‘experience’, so we borrow a word or phrase. We are also acquainted with the dominant role of olds, metaphors in many poetry movements throughout the cover quality history.By taking consideration all these facts Jorge Louis Borges constructed an article about the metaphors . Olds. Mainly.

Analogy , Argentina , Buenos Aires 1369 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an achieve, article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Essays. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. second point that is a result of this ill mind seeing things: She feels no more that her finger is part of her own body.

After the opening sentence which is . the introduction to the event, we can see that she addresses her thumb even in the first metaphor she takes: “Little pilgrim, the Indian’s axed your scalp.” and your turkey wattle, saboteur, Kamikaze man, your gauze KKK, your heart, you jump …. This confliction in can everyone achieve dream essay the poem, that is, addressing her thumb most of the times and switching. Cut , Emotion , Feeling 842 Words | 3 Pages. Shakespeare's use of metaphors in the play As You Like It with citations. In his play, As You Like It, and generally in all his writing William Shakespeare uses a lot of metaphors . In, As You Like It, he has . Rosalind who is disguised as boy named Ganymede use an interesting metaphor that explores the relationship between the consumption of time and the movement of a horse based on about, mood or pleasure. In my opinion the only reason that Rosalind ever uses the metaphor is to try to convince Orlando, the man she has fallen in love with and knows that he loves her, that she. As You Like It , Clock , Gallows 861 Words | 3 Pages. ENGLISH ESSAY – Julius Caesar Passionate convictions and articulating views are represented in texts, which contribute to the manipulation of . Research. our views. Essays About Four Year Olds. These elements are evident in Shakespeare’s ‘Julius Caesar,’ ABC News’ article, ‘Bill Henson’s case’ and Kev Carmondy’s song ‘This Land is Mine/This Land is thinking process steps Me.’ The primary stimulus, ‘Julius Caesar’ shows how an individual’s perspective can be defined as a way of essays about olds, seeing or interpreting a situation or set of facts based on for software assurance, a certain level of judgment.

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Nietzsche - Are amor fati and eternal recurrence compatible doctrines. 12 Pages, Grade: 1,3 (A) Are amor fati and about four year eternal recurrence compatible doctrines? The essay deals with the compatibility of two doctrines - amor fati and eternal recurrence. Four! The purpose of this paper will not be to assess if they are compatible in the sense of whether they can work in four year, intertwined harmony. I will not discuss the legitimacy of msword, amor fati as a doctrine but eternal recurrence with its non-religious claims needs to stand up to essays about year, our scrutiny. A doctrine can be either based on knowledge or on belief. It would stand to reason therefore to achieve dream essay, verify eternal recurrence?s claims to legitimacy through knowledge – empirical or physical evidence or through belief. In regard to knowledge I will have to essays year, prove if eternal recurrence is comprehensible, to paper, find out essays, whether or not amor fati and eternal recurrence are working hand in hand. Without plausible reasoning the final goal of amor fati can not be reached through the can everyone achieve the american dream way of eternal recurrence.

Firstly it is therefore necessary to find some empirical or physical proof for his thesis upon which one can build the basis for empirical interpretations of the eternal recurrence. Secondly Nietzsche?s eternal recurrence can be seen hypothetically, as a game of thoughts, where one is asked to imagine his/her life recurring innumerable times in all its smallest details and should then react to this imagined state-of-affairs. Taking the assumption that those statements are in themselves rational and convincing I can state that eternal recurrence leads consequently to amor fati. Therefore both doctrines are compatible. If it is not the case eternal recurrence will just be based on belief. I will answer the questions if Nietzsche really offers a new doctrine through which one can reach the goal of affirmation of life or if it is only a doctrine on the basis of faith. The goal of essays about olds, Nietzsche?s ambitious teaching is amor fati. Amor fati is the love of life itself and the love of fate. Write Research For Me! It does not stand for passive acceptance of all fruitful and painful experiences in life but for the love to all activities one performs and especially towards events which happen to oneself by year olds, chance. Essays About Four! “It is this total love of year olds, life which accepts all, rejects nothing, but preserves a sovereign mastery of the unruly elements in art history, the self, which Nieztsche continually celebrates under the name Amor Fati” (Williams, p. Xvii). It entails the essays yes to necessities, which means in the worst case, that perhaps one is entitled only to essays four year, fail in life.

Nietzsche does not want us to base the doctrine of amor fati on belief of the essays about four year olds Christian religion anymore but on the knowledge of eternal recurrence as a proof that we can love and change our lives out of ourselves, without a God. The Dionysianism in his book The Birth of Tragedy is an obvious example for amor fati as Nietzsche admires the Greek for celebrating all cycles in life, even the art history paper phases that consist in degeneration and decay. However, since in Nietzsche?s mind God is about four year, dead and nihilism reigns he thinks that we have to search for another way to about four olds, reach the final goal of total affirmation of life. I will not examine whether or not amor fati is a doctrine worth striving for, as it is about, not reasonable to question the sense of a target (like a footballer kicking a goal when he does not yet know where the goal posts are). An aim is static and it is not rational to judge measures which lead towards it when one is not sure about the goal itself. Taking amor fati as the desired end it leaves for me to test eternal recurrence?s validity as a method.

The method of eternal recurrence can be rooted on physical or hypothetical evidence or it can be a matter of belief. Referring to the Pons dictionary “a doctrine is a set of about year, principles or beliefs, especially religious ones” (Brown, p. 323). Robert Allen makes it even clearer that a doctrine can be based on two different set of principles. About Olds! “Doctrine [is] a principle or the body of principles in a branch of knowledge or system of belief” (Allen, p. 253). Dream Essay! One has got rather scientific or rational roots, the other consists of about four, conviction or trust in somebody or something. If Nietzsche?s set of principles have the power to make people change their lives towards amor fati, we can conclude that eternal recurrence forms a new doctrine and that those two doctrines are compatible.

Looking at art history, belief in terms of essays about four year olds, faith one can certainly claim that it changes people?s lives. However Nietzsche did not intend to create a new believe and art history paper definitely not a new religion. Zarathustra explained that “You had not yet sought yourselves when you found me. Thus do all believers; therefore all belief is of so little account” (Nietzsche, p. 103). He wanted to convince people to look not to a god but to themselves for a reason to about four, live. Nietzsche wanted to give reasons to alter ones attitude towards life. Belief starts, he knew, where reasoning ends.

Therefore I suggest that Nietzsche did not want belief to be the basis of his doctrine but logic. “It is power, this new virtue; it is letter quality assurance analyst, a ruling idea, and around it a subtle soul: a golden sun, and olds around it the serpent of knowledge” (Nietzsche, p. 101). To teach the create people, maybe as well as himself, how to affirm and eventually improve this imperfect life, he invented the doctrine of eternal recurrence. Essays About Four Olds! The idea occurred to him in August 1881 and appeared first in print in The Gay Science . Eternal recurrence is constituted by Nietzsche as follows: “This life as you live it and quality have lived it you will have to live it once again and innumerable times again; and essays about four olds there will be nothing new in it, but every pain and every joy and every thought and sigh and everything unspeakably small or great in essays about four olds, your life must return to you, and essays year olds all in the same succession and sequence…” (Williams, p. 194). For him eternal recurrence and amor fati are closely connected. Thinking Process! Nietzsche?s ideal is “the most exuberant, most living and most world-affirming man, who has not only learned to get on and treat with all that was and is but who wants to have it again as it was and four year olds is to all eternity. ” (Novak, p. 165). Eternal recurrence is “his most controversial teaching and the one he [Nietzsche] considered the most important” (Magnus, p. 38). In the literature it mainly discusses, whether eternal return leads to affirmation of life or not, on art history paper two different levels: the empirical or the hypothetical interpretation of Nietzsche?s worldview. Essays About! Starting off with the empirical hypothesis, I will refer to Bernd Magnus who deals with this topic in length in paper, his book Nietzsche?s Existential Imperative . About Four Year! He disproofs the thinking steps physical basis of Nietzsche?s doctrine and withdraws with it, the about year olds empirical legitimation. Can Everyone Achieve The American Dream! Leaving the hypothetical view of Nietzsche?s teaching aside for a moment, eternal return is made impossible and essays about four with it the influence on affirmation of life.

Most authors agree with Magnus that Nietzsche?s argumentation in terms of physical reliability are either trivial or false. Tracy Strong for example admits that the doctrine of write for me, reappearing again and again, unchanged, “hardly seems worth taking seriously, except, perhaps, in the light of offering some new form of moral behaviour by which the individual might relate his choices to a universal principle” (Strong, p. 261). Magnus enforces it, that “there can be no unambiguous empirical argument for recurrence in Nietzsche?s works at all and that he was himself aware of this fact” (Magnus, p. Four! 74). One evidence for the american dream essay this claim could be that references to the empirical requirements of the doctrine are only to be found in the Nachla? which was published later by his sister – not by himself. However taking this fact into account, nine broad empirical assumptions can be drawn from the Nachla?, according to Magnus. About Year Olds! I will deal with four of them, which if true, could have been the empirical basis of msword create, Nietzsche?s thesis. Nietzsche states: “In infinite time, every possible combination would at some time or other be realized; more: it would be realized an infinite number of times” (Magnus, p. 77) - as for him time is infinite and energy definitely is finite. He therefore could divide infinite time through a finite amount of energy and he ended up with a finite number of energy combinations and essays year olds developments.

Nietzsche claims that with limited possibilities and unlimited time the combinations will be repeated innumerable times. In his empirical studies Nietzsche must have been very much influenced by the zeitgeist of this period. Thinking Process! Especially before the turn of the century, it was thought that the essays about four year olds major laws of cover for software quality analyst, physics had been discovered (Newton’s laws covered the essays about four year gravitational effects, Maxwell’s laws the essays four electromagnetic etc.) and the world would be fully describable by them. At that time physicists believed the universe to be a gigantic deterministic “clock work”, where every future behaviour of a system (e.g. the movements of the planets around the sun) could be equated, just by four olds, the initial conditions given. Therefore Nietzsche tried to find physical evidence for his doctrine of eternal recurrence to increase the plausibility of his teaching and to make it more convincing. I can also imagine that Nietzsche was probably influenced by the, for his time, recent achievements in write research, Statistical Mechanics (Boltzmann, Gibbs etc.). Quantum mechanics was not yet invented, so he could not get the statistical mechanics in the right context. It is worth mentioning that quantum mechanics even though it postulates discrete energy levels, which would give a good point to Nietzsche’s reasoning for a finite number of energy states, it also tells us that the world is not deterministic at all, but dominated by complete random and not repetition of the same. Yet Georg Simmel?s classical refutation grants that there are only three number of essays four olds, states in write research for me, the system. Indeed it would be going beyond the limits of this essay to discuss Nietzsche’s hypothesis in the context of quantum mechanics.

Instead I would like to about, bring another argument on critical process steps stake to disproof Nietzsche’s physical basis for about four olds the doctrine of eternal recurrence. It seems to me that Nietzsche used some arguments that he got from thermodynamics, but he has not considered the whole theory with devastating results for his theses. He did not consider the second law of thermodynamics. It states that the entropy (information loss) of a system can never decrease. The state with the highest entropy (disorder) is the thinking process most likely and nature tends toward it. Now what does that mean to Nietzsche’s thesis? If you let a system evolve with time, it will tend to go in the state of highest entropy and rest there (equilibrium state). Therefore there will not be any repetition.

Without room for repetition Nietzsche?s idea of eternal return breaks down. Essays Four Year Olds! “I do not mean to suggest that Nietzsche was uninterested in can everyone the american essay, finding empirical confirmation for his doctrine. On the essays about four olds contrary, he was very much interested in finding empirical confirmation, but apparently for a doctrine which he had embraced for essays four olds reasons other than empirical cogency” (Magnus, p. 88). Essays About! His insufficient physical argument though suggests that it was rather written as a thought experiment than as a sustained argument in support of a definitive thesis. Nietzsche consciously left those physical experiments unpublished because he himself knew that, without profound scientifically support, it would not increase the credibility of his doctrine. However since his Nachla? was made public, authors tried to essay, proof him wrong to destroy the scientific basis of the doctrine. “. his scientifiic . pronouncements were based more on inspired guesswork and four self-oberservation than on reading or research” (Hayman, p. 360) which he most likely had already realised himself.

However without eternal return of things and events Nietzsche?s eternal recurrence is evitable no doctrine, not even a persuasive idea. According to the present physical knowledge Nietzsche?s assumtions, which led him to cover for software, his conclusion or which he tried to use to back up his doctrine, are wrong. “Nietzsche should have been deeply dissatisfied with his “proof,” which is incomplete and invalid” (Nehamas, p. 142). Therefore, as far as the olds empirical worldview is concerned, there can not be any connection between amor fati and eternal recurrence because, as shown, eternal return physically does not exist. Master's Thesis, 130Pages. Term Paper (Advanced seminar), 21Pages.

Term Paper (Advanced seminar), 22Pages. Intermediate Diploma Thesis, 31Pages. Term Paper (Advanced seminar), 23Pages. Scientific Essay, 4Pages. Term Paper (Advanced seminar), 45Pages. Scientific Essay, 5Pages. Term Paper (Advanced seminar), 21Pages. - Publication as eBook and book - High royalties for the sales - Completely free - with ISBN - It only cover letter quality takes five minutes! - Every paper finds readers. Master's Thesis, 130Pages. Term Paper (Advanced seminar), 21Pages. Term Paper (Advanced seminar), 22Pages.

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A Job-Seeker#8217;s Guide to Successfully Completing Job Applications. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. New to job-hunting? This article is designed to provide you with the critical information you need to successfully complete a job application. Should filling out an application be a stressful event? No.

If you have a resume, you should have just about essays olds, all the information you need. If you don#8217;t have a resume, now might be the time to create one.When are job applications used by essays olds, employers? For many part-time, entry-level, and blue collar jobs, employers use applications to screen potential employees; they use the information from the applications to determine who they are going to about four year olds, call for a job interview. For other types of jobs, applications are simply the paperwork the Human Resources department requires of all job applicants; employers often ask you to complete an application after they have invited you for an interview.Why do employers use job applications? Many employers use applications as a way of standardizing the information they obtain from all job-seekers, including some things that you would not normally put on your resume. Your goal is to complete the application as completely and honestly as you can #8212; all the cover letter assurance analyst, time remembering that the application is a key marketing tool for you in essays about four, the job-hunting process. Remember that some employers will use your application as a basis for deciding whether to call you for an interview. So, armed with this knowledge, here are the ins and outs for job-seekers of write research, successfully completing job applications.

Arrive prepared with the information you need. Be sure to about year olds, bring your resume, social security card, driver#8217;s license, etc. You probably will also need addresses and phone numbers of previous employers, as well as starting and ending salaries for each previous job. It#8217;s always better if have too much information than not enough. Read and follow instructions carefully. Can Everyone The American? Always take a few minutes to about year, review the entire application. Some applications ask for information differently #8212; and can everyone achieve dream essay all have specific spaces in which you are expected to answer questions. Think of the application as your first test in following instructions.

Complete the application as neatly as possible. Remember how important handwriting was in school? Neatness and legibility count; the application is a reflection of you. Consider typing it if you have access to a typewriter. About Olds? If completing it by hand, be sure to use only a blue or black pen #8212; and consider using an erasable pen or taking some #8220;white-out#8221; to fix minor mistakes. Don#8217;t fold, bend, or otherwise mar the application. Tailor your answers to quality assurance analyst, the job you are seeking. Just as with your resume and cover letter, you want to focus your education and experience to the job at hand. Give details of four year olds, skills and accomplishments, and avoid framing your experiences in terms of mere duties and responsibilities. Show why you are more qualified than other applicants for the position.

Include experience from all sources, including previous jobs, school, clubs and organizations, and cover letter for software quality analyst volunteer work. If you#8217;re having trouble identifying some of your skills, read our article about transferable skills. Don#8217;t leave any blanks. One of the reasons employers have you complete an application is because they want the essays year olds, same information from all job applicants. However, if there are questions that do not apply to you, simply respond with #8220;not applicable,#8221; or #8220;n/a.#8221; Do not write #8220;see resume#8221; when completing the application (but you can certainly attach your resume to the application). Don#8217;t provide any negative information. As with any job search correspondence, never offer negative information.

Your goal with the application is to get an interview. Providing negative information (such as being fired from for me a job) just gives the employer a reason not to interview you. Always answer questions truthfully. About Year Olds? The fastest way for an application to hit the trash can is to have a lie on it, but that doesn#8217;t mean you need to give complete answers either. For example, many applications ask your reason for thinking leaving your last job. If you were fired or downsized, you should try to be as positive as possible and essays about four olds leave longer explanations for the interview; some experts recommend writing #8220;job ended#8221; as the reason you left your last job. Do not put specific salary requirements. It is way too early in the job-seeking process to allow yourself to be identified by paper, a specific salary request.

You don#8217;t want to give employers too much information too soon. In addition, employers often use this question as a screening device #8212; and you don#8217;t want to be eliminated from consideration based on your answer. It#8217;s best to say #8220;open#8221; or #8220;negotiable.#8221; You can find lots more information about about year olds, all aspects of salary and benefits by going to our Salary Negotiation Tutorial. Provide references. Art History? Employers want to see that there are people who will provide objective information about you to them. Four? Pick your references carefully #8212; and make sure you ask if they are willing to letter, be a reference for you before you list them. Where do you get references?

From past employers, to teachers, to family friends. Most young job-seekers have a mix of professional and character references, while more experienced job-seekers focus on year olds, professional references who can speak of can everyone achieve the american dream, your skills and accomplishments. Keep your application consistent with your resume. Make sure all dates, names, titles, etc., on your application coincide with the essays four year, information on can everyone achieve the american dream, your resume. Don#8217;t worry if the application is based on chronological employment while you have a functional resume. Essays Olds? Don#8217;t know the difference between the two types of resumes? You might want to visit one of for software quality analyst, our Resume Tutorials.

Proofread your application before submitting it. Once you#8217;ve completed the application, sit back and take a moment to thoroughly proofread the document, checking for all errors #8212; especially typos and misspellings.One final word. Be prepared for all kinds of job applications, from simple one-page applications to multi-page applications; and some will be clean and crisp copies while others will appear to be photocopied a few too many times. Regardless, take your time and do the best you can, always keeping in the back of your mind the goal of the application #8212; getting you an interview.If you have not heard from the employer within a week of submitting your application, you should follow-up with the employer. There#8217;s truth to the #8220;squeaky wheel#8221; cliche. Ask for an interview #8212; and ask to have your application kept on file.Other parts of Quintessential Careers that might help you: Questions about some of the terminology used in this article?

Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Dr. Essays About Four Year Olds? Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of He is also founder of and He is essays, publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine.

Dr. About? Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He#8217;s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Year? Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years.

Visit his personal Website or reach him by year, email at randall(at) Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Maximize your career and job-search knowledge and skills! Take advantage of The Quintessential Careers Content Index, which enables site visitors to locate articles, tutorials, quizzes, and worksheets in 35 career, college, job-search topic areas. Stay up to write for me, date with the latest salary information form LiveCareer#8217;s Salary Calculator! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and essays about olds develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and critical writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want.

Dr. Essays About Olds? Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the the american dream essay, oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of Essays Four Year Olds? He is also founder of and He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and can everyone the american dream essay hundreds of articles.

He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Essays Four Olds? Hansen is can everyone dream, also an essays about year olds educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by critical thinking, email at Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for four olds all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and about year olds resources.

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Jews in the American Labor Movement: By Bennett Muraskin. German-speaking Jews who arrived in the US in the mid-19th century spread across the US and about olds tended to be merchants and shop keepers. Letter Assurance! Yiddish speaking Jews from essays four year olds Eastern Europe who arrived in the US beginning in the 1880s settled in the big cities and tended to be workers. The conditions they faced were daunting. Low wages, long hours, unsafe workplaces and overcrowded and unsanitary tenement housing were the norm. Most of these Jewish immigrants came from small towns and write research for me were not prepared for the noise, dirt, congestion, disease and crime rampant in essays, the great American cities of that period. Some even turned to crime and prostitution. However, they were free of the anti-Semitic laws and paper violence that plagued them in Eastern Europe. Their children were entitled to a free public education and once they became citizens, they could vote and participate in the political process.

At first, many were pre-occupied with earning enough money to send for relatives they left behind in Europe. From the beginning, Jews gravitated to the garment industry in part because they had experience as tailors in essays, Eastern Europe. Critical Thinking Process! It did not take long before they began to see trade unions as the path their economic and four social progress. However, before going any further, it is necessary to recognize one of the most important Jewish personalities in the history of the American labor movement, Samuel Gompers. Gompers came to US from England in 1863. His parents came from Holland, with ancestry dating back to Spain. In other words, he was a Sephardic Jew. Gompers became a cigar maker and about year was one of founders of Cigar Makers Union back in 1870s. He was integral to essays about year, the founding of the American Federation of Labor in the 1880s and art history paper led it until 1924, but he did not share language, culture or politics of East European Jews. Gompers is considered a conservative influence because of his devotion to craft unionism, hostility toward socialism and opposition to immigration.

By 1888 there was already a Jewish labor movement called the United Hebrew Trades, originally conceived by Russian-speaking Jewish intellectuals and revolutionaries who frowned on Yiddish as inferior language of the shtetl. Some actually came to the US to established farms run on a socialist basis--a back to the land movement. But these projects soon fizzled and they moved to essays four, the big cities among other Jewish immigrants. As committed anarchists and socialists, they sought to organize the Jewish working class, but in order to do so, they first had to master Yiddish. At this early stage, Yiddish was a means to an end, not an instrument for cultural development. Their propaganda, though, used religious imagery to inspire the workers--passages from the can everyone achieve Prophets on social justice, references to modern day Pharoahs and to the Israelites’ liberation from Egyptian slavery etc.

Abraham Cahan, later the editor of the Yiddish newspaper, the socialist daily Forvertz, was one of these early revolutionaries and was the first to use Yiddish to essays four year, reach Jewish workers. To aid in this campaign, he translated the research for me Communist Manifesto into Yiddish. The earliest Jewish unions were, of essays about olds course, in art history paper, the garment industry, but also among cigar makers, bakers, printers, painters---and surprisingly, actors. These were semi-skilled or skilled workers in sectors where Jews were not only the workers, but often the owners too. Essays Year! The owners were typically German Jews who arrived in the US a few generations earlier and who had become successful businessmen--by exploiting the research East European Jews who came after them. In 1886, even before the formation of the United Hebrew Trades, Jewish labor unions, although very small at this time, participated in a national wide general strike to achieve the eight hour day. They supported the campaign to elect social reformer Henry George mayor of essays four olds NYC. He lost to the Democratic candidate, but beat out the Republican, the young Theodore Roosevelt.

Another early Jewish labor leader who was also of Sephardic origin---Daniel DeLeon—was the dominant figure in the first major socialist organization in the US--the Socialist Labor Party. For Software Assurance! An immigrant from Curacao, a Caribbean island ruled by the Dutch, he was, for a brief period, a popular figure among East European Jewish workers in the US, although he was not openly Jewish. In the 1890s there were 25 Yiddish-speaking branches of the SLP and in NYC over 30% of the essays about year Jewish vote went to SLP candidates. Who were Jewish labor leaders’ role models and their mentors? Not other Jews, but German American anarchists and create resume socialists who came to essays four olds, the US in the mid-19th century and the German Social Democratic Party, then the largest socialist party in the world. Many Jewish immigrants who arrived in the late 1880s or early 1890s were radicalized by achieve the american dream essay, the famous Haymarket Affair (1886) in Chicago, which resulted in the hanging of four anarchists all but one German immigrants, for allegedly throwing a bomb that killed police who were breaking up a rally in favor of the eight hour day. Alongside the Jewish labor movement there arose the Yiddish socialist and anarchist press. Not just journalists, but poets, novelists and short story writers, who worked by essays four year, day and wrote by night and whose creative work ardently reflected their support for the Jewish labor movement. In 1892, for thinking steps, example, Di Zukunft ( The Future) a literary journal began publication as a means to propagate socialism among Yiddish speaking Jews. Within a few years Yiddish poet Morris Winchevsky, considered the original “sweatshop poet” was contributing poems with both Jewish and labor oriented themes. The best known sweatshop poet Morris Rosenfeld, who arrived in this country from London in 1886, but grew up in Poland, wrote this verse:

The sweatshop at midday--I will draw you a picture; A battlefield bloody; the conflict at essays about year, rest; Around and about me the corpses are lying; The blood cries aloud from the earth's gory breast. A moment. and year olds hark! The loud signal is sounded, And dead rise again and renewed in essays about, their fight. They struggle, these corpses; for msword, strangers, for strangers! They struggle, they fall and they sink into essays about four the night.

Not only were poems like this widely read, they were put to music and sung by create resume, Jewish workers. In a way that can scarcely be imagined today newspapers played a large role in the lives of working people. Immigrant Jews, who were highly literate and politically active, founded one of the about most influential newspapers--the Yiddish Forvertz --edited by Abe Cahan. It began publication around the turn of the 20th century and attained a peak daily circulation of 250,000 in the 1920s. The Forvertz building on the Lower East Side featured engravings of olds Marx and Engels and the phrase “Workers of the about olds World Unite” appeared on its masthead.

The two other most influential labor-oriented newspapers were the Frei Arbeter Shtimme , with an paper anarchist perspective and the Freiheit , the Yiddish communist paper, a rival to the Forvertz that emerged in the early 1920s. In addition to advocating for essays four year olds, socialism, unionism and Jewish secularism, the Forvertz featured human interest stories and its famous advice column known as “bintl brief.” Short stories by Yiddish writers appeared in serial form. After 1905, the Jewish labor movement was invigorated by the immigration of Bundists, i.e. Yiddish speaking socialist activists from Czarist Russia, escaping the repression that followed the failed revolution. They wasted no time in rising to the leadership in the unions, the create Socialist Party, the fraternal orders, the four olds socialist press and kindred organizations.

By far the most dramatic and memorable event in the post-1905 Jewish labor movement was the Uprising of the 20,000. Critical Steps! For four months over the winter of 1909-1910, Jewish and Italian women, and a few men involved in the manufacturing of women's shirtwaists in NYC, led by the International Ladies Garment Worker Union (ILGWU,) conducted a general strike against essays four sweatshop conditions. Research For Me! These include long hours, piece work, abusive supervisors, poor ventilation, and essays year no job security. Strikes had already broken out in various shops. At a mass meeting, Clara Lemlich, a young Jewish woman who had already been arrested many times by the police and beaten up by thugs came to the platform and called for a general strike. Benjamin Feigenbaum, the chairperson of the meeting, a well known Jewish atheist, took Lemlich's hand and held it up. He asked if the critical process steps crowd was ready to take the old Jewish oath, which says If I forget thee O Jerusalem, may my right hand wither from the arm I raise. But he changed a few key words. Instead he said, If I turn traitor to the cause I now pledge, may my right hand wither from the arm I raise. Every arm in the hall went up and this is how the four year general strike began. Research! Four months later--four winter months later--after many arrests and picket line violence, the essays year olds union won.

A general strike of art history tens of thousands more workers in essays year olds, the cloak and process suit industry, most who whom were men, followed in 1910 which was also successful. A similar victory was achieved in essays about year olds, Chicago in 1912-13, in a mass strike led by a young Sidney Hillman and Bessie Abramowitz, who later became his wife. Clara Lemlich who became Clara Lemlich Shavelson after she married, became, along with her husband, a founding member of the Communist Party in 1919. As a house wife during the Depression, she organized rent strikes and boycotts over olds high meat prices. She also participated in the Emma Lazarus Clubs founded by Jewish communist women to fight for social justice and support left wing Yiddish institutions. These strikes pitted East European Yiddish speaking workers against German Jewish employers. But many of the wives of the German Jewish employers and other upper class and middle class gentile women were involved in the Women’s Trade Union League and year as such, supported the msword create strike and actually joined the picket lines. The big makhers in the Jewish community were so disturbed that they eventually pressured the employers to agree to mediation by a young Louis Brandeis, later the essays about four olds first Jewish Supreme Court justice appointed by essays about four year, President Woodrow Wilson in essays four year olds, 1916 and about year a prominent Zionist. In a document called the “Protocols of essays olds Peace,” covering 339 shops. workers won a 50 hour week, a union shop, and art history end to piecework, equal division of work during slack season, a limit on forced overtime, paid holidays and the arbitration of grievances. An even larger strike of cloakmakers in New York and Chicago in essays about olds, 1910 was also successful. Gains of this nature were not won by other industrial workers for another 25 years!

In the midst of this strike wave, there occurred a great man-made tragedy---The Triangle Fire on March 25, 1911 that killed 146 mostly Jewish and Italian girls in a shop that had managed to resist the union tide. The entire Lower East Side was grief struck and the general public horrified. After the strike, impartial investigations were conducted and the New York State legislature enacted various safety codes. The garment workers unions took advantage of the justified hostility toward the art history paper garment manufacturers to renew their organizing drives. These strikes made the essays year ILGWU and letter assurance analyst the Chicago based Amalgamated Clothing Workers into year olds powerful unions with deep roots in write research for me, the Jewish community. Other unions with high Jewish membership and leadership formed among furriers, hat and about year olds cap makers, bakers, printers and painters. The Jewish union federation known as the United Hebrew Trades grew to 250,000 members by 1913. It did not happen all at write research, once, but the essays olds big garment workers union's pioneered what became known as SOCIAL UNIONISM. Some of msword its features were: health clinics sanatoriums for TB pensions day care centers cooperative housing like the Amalgamated Houses and Penn South in NYC vacation resorts/summer camps (e.g, Camp Nit Gedayget or “No Worries”) adult education and lectures cultural activities etc. first in Yiddish, later in English banks (one still exists in NYC) labor solidarity and support for industrial unionism.

Since not all Jewish workers were in unions and not all pro-labor Jews were workers, there was a need for broader institutions. The same generation of left-leaning immigrant Jews working class Jews who founded the Jewish labor unions, also founded the Arbeter Ring/Workmen's Circle, known for its insurance plans, health care programs, old age homes, Yiddish schools, summer camps, sports teams, women’s clubs, reading circles, choruses, orchestras and much more--all with a strong emphasis on year olds, Yiddish, socialism and labor solidarity across ethnic lines. Socialist Zionists and later Jewish communists established parallel institutions. Another pivotal event in the history of the Jewish labor movement was the election of Meyer London to critical, Congress from the Lower East Side in 1914 who served two more terms until 1922. Essays About! He was a Jewish labor lawyer, an immigrant fluent in Yiddish and essays about four English, who ran as a candidate for the Socialist Party, which was the four majority party among Jewish workers in these years. His election was a great source of pride for the immigrant Jewish working class of NYC. Thinking Steps! He joined another Socialist member of Congress, Victor Berger, a German Jew from essays four year Milwaukee, then a socialist stronghold due to the German population, more Gentile than Jewish. Other immigrant Jews were elected on the Socialist Party line in steps, New York to the state legislature. Year! On the federal level, Jews in the labor movement voted Socialist too, most notably for Eugene Victor Debs before WWI and to achieve the american essay, a lesser extent for Norman Thomas in essays olds, the 1920s and early 1930s.

Jewish socialists were so enamored with Debs, a gentile, that they named a New York City radio station after him—WEVD—even though most of research its programming was in Yiddish. The third most prominent Jewish candidate for public office was Morris Hillquit, #2 man in the Socialist Party next to Debs. Hillquit, who was also a labor lawyer, won 22% of the vote running for mayor of NYC in 1917 and 33% in 1932, during the depths of the essays about four Depression. The most radical union in this period, i.e between 1905 and US entrance into World War One in 1917 was the Industrial Workers of the World. It did not have many Jewish members because the IWW did most of its organizing among industrial workers, agricultural workers, miners and lumberjacks, where Jews were rarely worked. But in their forays into the East, most notably the 1912 Lawrence, Mass. textile workers strike and the 1913 Paterson, NJ silk workers strike, thousands of Jewish workers participated, including Hannah Silverman, a Paterson mill worker, who became an important strike leader. Process Steps! Matlida Robbins, born Tatiana Rabinowitz, led a strike of textile workers in Little Falls, NY in essays, 1912 and was hired by the IWW as one of two paid female organizers. The best known Jewish Wobbly was Frank Tannenbaum, who organized unemployed workers in New York City to four year olds, demand food and shelter from churches during the bitter cold winter of 1913-14. He was falsely accused of inciting to riot and about served a year in a notorious city prison where he organized a strike of inmates against harsh conditions.

Tannenbaum later dropped out of the labor movement to pursue a higher education. He earned a PhD from Columbia University and become a scholar specializing in race relations, criminology and Latin American history. The Jewish-dominated labor unions constituted the create resume left wing of the AFL, along with a few others unions where Jews were not a factor. In 1919, when an organizing drive led to a mass strike among steelworkers, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers donated nearly 40% of the essays year funds raised by the entire labor movement, even though the number of Jewish steelworkers was miniscule. The Forvertz covered this and other strikes by non-Jewish workers for cover letter quality, its Yiddish readership, not only for their news value, but to encourage labor solidarity. It was not all great deeds, though. Women in the union shops did not receive equal pay for equal work, or the better jobs, and were also kept out of the union leadership.

One of the few exceptions, Rose Pesotta, eventually became so disillusioned with the inferior status of essays year women in the ILGWU that she resigned. Fellow organizer Fania Cohn suffered a similar fate. Four! In some instances, the ILGWU engaged gangsters to fight both employers and internal union dissidents. Essays Four! Corruption and nepotism were not unknown. Paper! Nevertheless Jewish women, including Pesotta, Fania Cohn, Rose Schneiderman, Pauline Newman, Bessie Abramowitz and essays about Rose Pastor Stokes achieved far greater prominence than their Gentile counterparts. It was Schneiderman who eloquently stated in 1912 that “the worker must have bread, but she must have roses too.” The phrase “bread and write for me roses” actually comes from a poem written by a Jewish poet James Oppenheim in 1911 honoring the sacrifices and dignity of women workers. Put to music, it has become a labor anthem. (The 1912 Lawrence textile strike has gone down into history as the “bread and roses” strike, because of the reported use of the phrase on picket signs, but some historians dispute this claim.) The difference that Jewish labor unions and their network of about year affiliated institutions made in critical thinking steps, improving lives of the Jewish working class in the material and spiritual sense was outstanding. A typical Jewish worker in this period could easily belong to about four olds, a Jewish labor union and/or a mutual aid organization like the Workmen’s Circle, read the Yiddish Forvertz , send their child to a socialist/Yiddishist after-school program and summer camp, live in cooperative housing, attend lectures by Yiddish and art history paper socialist speakers and about four year olds vote for the Socialist Party. The only other immigrant communities that established comparable networks of labor, social welfare, political, cultural and create educational institutions were left-wing German Americans, who, as previously noted, were the about year original role models for the Jewish labor movement and, for that matter, the Workmen's Circle and Forvertz . But their heyday was in the 19th century.

Finnish immigrant socialists, who were mainly concentrated in thinking process steps, Minnesota and essays about year olds Wisconsin, were organized along the same lines, but were far less visible than Jews. Among the bulk of the cover letter non-Jewish immigrant populations, the Catholic Church played a comparable role in about year, terms of providing social services and children’s education, but with a profoundly conservative philosophy. The Church may have accepted trade unionism of the four year olds more “bread and essays about four year butter” variety, but were fiercely opposed to secularism, socialism and a prominent role for women. What was most distinctive about the immigrant Jewish working class, in the broadest sense of the term, was its desire for essays about four year, education. Many immigrants of essays about year olds all nationalities attended night school to learn English, but Jewish labor activists also established study groups, libraries, schools and cover letter for software quality analyst lecture programs first in four, Yiddish and write research for me later in about four olds, English, not just to teach the principles of anarchism, socialism, communism, labor unionism etc., but to teach literature, economics, science and civics. Art History Paper! A Jewish Workers University connected with the Communist Party existed from 1926 to 1941 teaching a variety of courses, exclusively in about four, Yiddish.

The socialist ILGWU had its own “Workers University.” The best known adult schools were the socialist Rand School of Social Science (founded in 1906) and the communist Jefferson School of Social Science (founded in 1944), both located in New York City. They were non-sectarian, of course, but the majority of their students were Jewish. The Women’s Trade Union League sponsored a summer school for women workers at Bryn Mawr College that continued from 1921 to 1938. A preponderance of students were Russian Jewish immigrants. The children of these radical Jewish workers flocked to public colleges in art history paper, higher numbers than any other ethnic group and were integrally involved in New Left of the essays about year 1960s and 1970s including the civil rights, anti-war, feminist and gay liberation movements. The notorious Palmer raids associated with the post-World War One Red Scare caused the arrest and in some cases deportation of non-citizen radicals, many of them Jewish. Social activism and union membership shrunk in the 1920s due to government repression, but some of the harm done to the Jewish labor unions was self-inflicted. A schism in for software quality analyst, the Jewish labor movement developed in the early to four olds, mid-1920s after the communists seceded from the Socialist Party to form the essays year Communist Party. The issues in dispute were the appropriate attitude toward the essays about olds new Soviet Union and the assessment of revolutionary prospects in for me, the US.

The pro-Soviet Jewish communists and anti-Soviet Jewish socialists went to about four, war over control of the ILGWU and about four year olds became bitter rivals throughout the Jewish labor movement. The communists lost after a very ugly battle, but gained control over the Furriers Union. The split went far beyond the labor movement. Jewish communists established a new newspaper, the Freiheit to rival the Forverts. By the late 1920s, Jewish communists had formed their own radical fraternal mutual aid, cultural and educational organization, known as the Jewish Peoples Fraternal Order to compete with the Arbeter Ring/Workman’s Circle. The JPFO was affiliated with other pro-communist ethnic constituencies in the International Workers Order, but the Jewish branch was by far the largest. The JPFO’s devotion to the Stalinist Soviet Union knew no bounds, but it was also committed to progressive causes and Yiddish culture. The linke (left wing) and rekhte (right wing) Yidn battled it out in their press, in the unions and essays four olds meeting halls and in the streets. According to quality assurance, Irving Howe, author of World of Our Fathers , there was nothing in the whole Jewish immigrant experience to match the civil war between the Jewish left for “sheer ugliness.” There was no doubt that the communists were “left wing,” but only in the context of bitter factional rivalry could the socialists be described as “right wing.”

The entire labor movement took a beating in the 1920s and in the early years of the Great Depression. Revival in all industries and trades came with the New Deal. In 1937, the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) was formed to organize millions of “industrial workers” in the mining, auto, steel, rubber, oil, electrical and maritime industries, in which there were very few Jews, but three out of the eight American Federation of Labor unions that split away to year olds, form the CIO were the Jewish unions: the ILGWU, the ACW and the Hat Makers and Milliners Union. As organizers, Jewish socialists and communists played a significant role in the mass strikes the CIO conducted among largely non-Jewish workers in basic industry. A small CIO union, called Local 1199, led by Jewish communist Leon Davis, organized the mostly Jewish pharmacists and other drug store employees in New York City during the Depression and World War Two. Art History Paper! In the late 1950s, it branched out into organizing Black and Puerto Rican hospital workers in New York City and achieved success by four olds, engaging in art history, very militant strikes, first in New York and later in other states. Jews were also prominent as attorneys for the CIO unions. Lee Pressman was general counsel to the CIO during the late 30s and 40s; Maurice Sugar general counsel to the United Auto Workers and John Apt general counsel to the Amalgamated Clothing Workers from about four olds 1938 to 1946 and essays year a top advisor to its president Sidney Hillman. Arthur Goldberg served as general counsel to the United Steel Workers in the late 40s and early 50s. He went on to become Secretary of Labor under JFK and a Supreme Court justice under LBJ. In 1939, Morris Ernst represented the CIO in a landmark civil liberties case before the US Supreme Court that established its right to freedom of assembly in about year, Jersey City, NJ.

As an attorney for the American Newspaper Guild, an AFL union, Ernst also won a case before the US Supreme Court guaranteeing the right of newspaper employees to organize under the National Labor Relations Act. Although one step removed from the labor movement, Jews were also prominent among labor arbitrators and mediators. Theodore Kheel was widely known as the mediator of for software quality assurance analyst choice in settling labor disputes in New York City, including the lengthy newspaper workers strike of 1962-63. On the cultural front, the ILGWU sponsored a theatrical production called Pins and Needles which ran for 3.5 years on Broadway from 1937 to 1940. It took the form of a review consisting of essays about olds songs, sketches and paper satire and included rank and about file workers in the cast. The most socially conscious of all Broadway musical plays, The Cradle Will Rock, was also a product of the Depression era--and the New Deal's Federal Theater Project . It told the story of an essays about olds organizing drive among steelworkers. Both music and four year lyrics were written by Mark Blitzstein, an avowed communist. The epitome of pro-labor theater during the 1930s was Clifford Odets’ Waiting for Lefty (1935) whose final scene consists of assurance analyst New York City taxi drivers chanting “Strike, Strike, Strike!” Odets too was a Jewish communist.

There was also a genre to “proletarian literature” during the 1930s and 40s suffused with radical themes. Among Jewish writers, Michael Gold stands out for his fictionalized autobiography Jews Without Money (1930) about an essays year olds impoverished child growing up in the Jewish ghetto of Manhattan whose experiences led him to embrace communism. Howard Fast, a much more successful writer, best known for Spartacus (1951) and decades later The Immigrants (1977), also wrote Clarkton (1947) about a factory workers strike in Massachusetts. On the political front, in 1936 the more conservative wing of the Socialist Party, whose base was the Jewish labor unions, collaborated with the Communist Party in can everyone essay, forming the American Labor Party (ALP), which despite its name was limited to New York State. Essays About Year Olds! It supported FDR and write research for me other New Deal Democrats, but also ran its own candidates against Tammany Hall, the Democratic machine. Its greatest triumph was electing Italian American Vito Marcantonio to Congress, representing Harlem. About Olds! He served for six terms and was influential in New York left wing circles from the late 1930s to the early 1950s. The ALP also elected a Jew, Leo Isaacson, who served only one term in Congress, and some local and state legislators.

The bulk of art history paper its funding, until the socialists split in 1944 to form the Liberal Party, came from the Jewish labor unions. ILGWU President David Dubinsky was an important figure in the Jewish labor movement during the year 1930s and 40s, but the most influential on the national political scene during the cover letter assurance analyst New Deal and about four olds up through WW II was Sidney Hillman, the President of the left-wing Amalgamated Clothing Workers. Along with the ILGWU, it formed the backbone of the American Labor Party. In the write research for me 1940s, Hillman became an essays four FDR’s top advisor on critical thinking steps, labor issues and head of the CIO's political action committee. In 1944, FDR uttered his famous Clear it with Sidney remark, giving Hillman a role in selecting the Vice Presidential candidate.

His role, however, was limited. Essays About Olds! The sitting Vice President Henry Wallace was his and for software assurance analyst the CIO’s first choice, but Wallace was dropped from the ticket by the party bosses. Hillman got to four year, choose between two remaining candidates and approved the selection of Harry Truman over a more conservative contender. Although Hillman died young in 1946, Dubinsky continued to lead the ILGWU until the mid-1960s. The ILGWU attained a peak membership of 450,000 under his leadership.

But in 1941, he unfairly denounced a wildcat strike of over a thousand workers against critical steps the Maidenform Bra company in essays year, Bayonne, New Jersey as communist-inspired. In this case, the owners were Jewish, and essays about olds the workers mostly Polish and Italian Catholics, although one of the strike leaders was a Jewish radical Archie Lieberman. In 1961, Dubinsky notoriously opposed an organizing drive among his own union staffers. Jewish workers (and Jews in general) idolized FDR, despite his failure to take decisive action to about olds, rescue the Jews of Europe from Hitler. Cover For Software Quality Assurance! Most Jewish organizations did not do much themselves, but in 1934, the essays four Jewish socialist unions, together with the Workman’s Circle and the Yiddish newspaper Forvertz formed the Jewish Labor Committee, led by Baruch Charney Vladeck, to sound the alarm about the rise of Nazism, organize a boycott of German exports and bring endangered trade unionists to the US. Working within the conservative AFL, Vladeck convinced that body to issue strong anti-Nazi resolutions. Here is how he appealed to the non-Jewish labor leaders: In the torture chambers of fascism, the Jew occupies a conspicuous and painful place. One of the most important reasons why all tyrants hate us is because of our long experience resisting injustice. Over 4000 years ago, a Jew by the name of Moses. led the first strike of art history bricklayers at the Pyramids and since then all Pharoahs are our enemies. Vladeck had a storied career.

He was the manager of the about four year Forvertz . Before World War One, he was elected as New York City alderman on the Socialist Party ticket. In 1936, he was elected city councilman as a representative of the American Labor Party in 1936 and served until his untimely death in achieve, 1938. After the war, the Jewish Labor Committee provided relief for Jewish refugees and pressured Congress to pass legislation admitting them to the US. When these efforts were stymied, the JLC supported immigration of surviving European Jews to Israel. Music was an integral part of the left wing of the four year labor movement--Jewish and non-Jewish. Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger (non-Jews) began singing in union halls and picket lines across the process country in the late 1930s. After World War Two, Seeger, Lee Hays and two Jewish performers--Ronnie Gilbert and Fred Hellerman---formed the about four year Weavers and packed concert halls in major venues, singing folk songs and songs of msword create resume social justice. But they did not sing in about year olds, Yiddish. A few Hebrew songs, celebrating the new state of Israel, were part of achieve the american dream essay their repertoire.

Joe Glazer (d. 2006), known as “Labor's Troubadour,” and Tom Glazer (d. 2003) were also part of this tradition. They both composed and performed labor songs, although they came from different political perspectives. Joe was anti-communist; Tom was more sympathetic to about year olds, communism. The Weavers disbanded in the mid 1950s.

The Glazers, who were not related, continued on (separately) until the 1990s . In June 1979, Joe Glazer invited other labor musicians to the George Meany Center for Labor Studies in art history paper, Silver Spring Maryland to share labor-related songs and to discuss the effective use of music, song, poetry and year olds chants in labor activism. The three-day event became an annual event, known as the Great Labor Arts Exchange (GLAE). It still exists today. Historically unions led by Jewish socialists and communists were heavily involved in fighting racism against Blacks. A. Philip Randolph, president of the thinking Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and a leading campaigner against employment discrimination had ties to the Socialist Party and its many Jewish activists. Essays! During the 1930s and 40s, Jewish labor unions and labor radicals were the most active in supporting equal treatment for Blacks in the workplace and in the union hierarchy.

In the civil rights struggles of the critical late 1940s, Jewish communists stood out in their tireless efforts to integrate baseball. They regularly picketed and handed out leaflets at baseball stadiums demanding the end to the color bar. One noteworthy Jewish labor activist who consistently fought for racial equality was Harold Shapiro. In 1948, as a President of a Detroit local of the communist-led Fur and Leather Workers Union in Detroit, he helped convince the Wayne County CIO to include the UAW’s Coleman Young in its leadership. (Young became mayor of Detroit in 1974). He was also one of the founders of the National Negro Labor Council. Essays Four! In 1954, he was called to called to msword, testify before the four House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) where he refused to answer questions about his alleged membership or that of others in his union in art history, the Communist Party.

During the next decade, he organized in essays four year olds, the South for essay, labor unionism and year olds civil rights, braving arrests and beatings. The post-World War Two anti-communist hysteria aka the McCarthy era, lasting from the late 1940s to the late 1950s caused the AFL and CIO to purge communists from its ranks, including a high proportion of art history Jewish communists. This had a chilling effect on all forms of labor radicalism. One of the unions expelled from the olds CIO as communist-dominated was the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, the successor to the Western Federation of Miners, the union that was originally the backbone of the art history paper IWW. In 1954, Jewish screen writer Herbert Biberman's film The Salt of the essays Earth appeared, based on a bitter 1951 strike conducted by letter quality assurance analyst, this union among Mexican American miners in New Mexico. Many of the miners and their wives appeared in essays about, the cast, along with a few professional actors. Msword Resume! Biberman was one of the Hollywood Ten, writers and essays olds directors, who were blacklisted and jailed for contempt of Congress in the late 1940s. The Salt of the Earth suffered a similar fate--very few theaters agreed to show it and it was denounced as communist propaganda. The film was rarely seen until the late 1960s. Since then it has been become an underground classic in progressive circles.

Coincidentally 1954 also saw the appearance of Pajama Game , an award winning musical featuring a strike at a pajama factory (enlivened by a love story), with music by Richard Adler and lyrics by Jerry Ross, both Jews. After World War Two, the art history role of Jews in the labor movement was further diminished by the post war economic boom which lifted Jews into the middle class. “Jewish labor movement” transitioned to “Jews in four year olds, the labor movement.” The Yiddish component and create the strong immigrant-based urban communities that sustained and nurtured a specifically Jewish labor movement went into rapid decline. As the number of Jewish garment workers dropped dramatically beginning in the 1950s, the ILGWU leadership remained Jewish, raising allegations that it had become an entrenched bureaucracy discriminating against about four olds the new minorities in the union ranks--Puerto Ricans and Blacks--as well as women. Paper! Mob control also became a serious problem in some ILGWU locals. The ugliest episode in the post-WW II history of the Jewish labor movement was the 1968 NYC teachers strike led the United Federation of Teachers and its high profile president Albert Shanker. In 1967 the essays year olds Board of art history paper Education, with funding from the Ford Foundation, chose a predominantly Black “Ocean Brownsville” school district in Brooklyn for essays four year olds, an experiment in “community control.” The UFT and the elected school board clashed over UFT demands to remove disruptive students, the about year board's appointment of essays about year olds a principal not on the approved civil service list and, especially, the board's decision to achieve essay, transfer 19 teachers and administrators it considered ineffective. In 1968, the UFT launched a series of strikes that closed down the entire NYC school system. The community board accused the Union of racism; the Union accused the community board of union-busting--and anti-Semitism, because the bulk of the teachers it removed were Jewish.

The UFT was ultimately successful, but at the cost of inflaming racial tensions. Nevertheless, the UFT was later successful in organizing mostly minority para-professionals in the NYC school system. On the essays about four bright side, Local 1199, Drug and Hospital Workers Union and AFSCME (the American Federation of art history State, County and Municipal Employees) were so active in the civil rights movement that In 1968, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., called 1199 my favorite union. King chose Local 1199’s Salute to Freedom program as his platform to announce his opposition to the Vietnam War. Later that year, King was assassinated in essays about year olds, Memphis where he came to support a strike of black sanitation workers organized by AFSCME. One of King's top advisors, Stanley Levison, was Jewish. Because of his earlier ties with the Communist Party, King was pressured to distance himself from Levison, but he continued to consult with Levison behind the scenes. Local 1199 (led by Leon Davis), representing drug store and hospital employees, District 65, (led by David Livingston), representing retail and light manufacturing employees and the American Federation of State, County and resume Municipal Employees (AFSCME) (led by Jerry Wurf), representing public employees, were also among the essays about few labor unions that opposed the Vietnam War.

The children of paper Jewish workers earned college degrees and four year went on can everyone achieve the american dream, to become professionals. Many continued their parents’ tradition of social activism in the 1960s by joining the about four olds civil rights movement. There was a very large Jewish presence among the Freedom Riders. By the same token, many young Jewish “red diaper babies” played a major role in the birth of the New Left. Paul Jacobs was one labor activist whose career spanned the pre-war and post-war eras. In the early 1940s, he organized non-Jewish workers in Pennsylvania for the ILGWU in can everyone dream essay, then, in the late 40s and early 50s, represented non-Jewish workers as International Representative for the Oil Workers International Union. In between, he worked for the American Jewish Committee in exposing racial discrimination within the labor movement. To his discredit, he also led a purge of the essays about pro-communist Jewish Peoples Fraternal Order from the art history Jewish Community Council in Los Angeles. During the 1950s Jacobs visited Israel as a guest of the Histadrut, the Israeli labor federation and four year olds took trips to Eastern Europe where he toured Auschwitz and educated himself about the e Holocaust. While visiting the Soviet Union, he found alive a Yiddish writer thought to be executed by Stalin. In 1961, he covered the Eichmann trial for a Newsday , a New York newspaper, arguing that Eichmann should be tried in an international rather than an Israeli court.

His last foray into the labor movement was to write a Harper's magazine article in 1963 indicting the can everyone essay ILGWU for flouting union democracy, refusing to recognize its staff union and excluding Blacks from leadership. Although middle aged, he joined the New Left and became involved in the movements against the Vietnam War and nuclear weapons. In 1976, he co-founded Mother Jones magazine. In 1965, Jacobs wrote a colorful yet little known memoir Is Curly Jewish ? His answer was that he was not quite sure, but there was something very Jewish about about four, his asking the question. Jewish involvement in the labor movement received a new lease on process steps, life with the expansion of the public sector, associated with LBJ’s War on Poverty in about olds, the mid-1960s and similar programs on essays about four year olds, state and local levels. Collective bargaining rights were generally not won in the public sector until the 1960s and 70s, through legislation and strikes. On the federal, state and local levels, Jews were heavily represented as teachers, librarians, social workers, college faculty and in other professional civil service/white collar positions. Unions such as American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, the American Federation of Teachers and year olds some of the postal workers unions had a significant number of Jews in their rank and cover quality assurance analyst file and featured an even higher percentage in leadership and as union staffers and lawyers. Victor Gotbaum, for example, led AFSCME’s District 37 from 1965 to 1987, as it became a powerful union of NYC civil service employees.

In public higher education, the American Federation of Teachers organized faculty in about year, the New York city college system New York City in the late 1960s, soon to followed in the state university system, but the groundwork was laid by a protracted and ultimately failed strike at the private Catholic St. John’s University led by Israel Kugler over 1966-67. Can Everyone Dream! Kugler was also a leader of the Workmen’s Circle and it contributed heavily to the strike fund. The 1960s saw the massive expansion of women in essays about four, the labor movement while leadership remained male-dominated. Essays About Four Olds! The Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW) was founded in 1974 by women unionists affiliated with the about AFL-CIO to address women’s issues in achieve dream essay, the workplace. Its goals were and remain to: Promote affirmative action in essays about olds, the workplace Strengthen the role of women in unions Organize more women into unions.

At its founding convention in Chicago, Myra Wolfgang, secretary-treasurer of the Detroit Joint Executive Board of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union (HERE), brought the paper delegates to their feet by declaring, You can call Mr. Meany and tell him there are 3,000 women in year, Chicago and paper they didn't come here to swap recipes! Wolfgang, a Jewish woman, who later rose to the position of International VP, was one of the most influential female labor leaders of her generation. In 1937, at the 23 years of age, she led a sit-down strike of salesclerks and waitresses at one of Detroit's Woolworth five and ten cents stores. Nicknamed the battling belle of Detroit, she ran the union's Detroit Joint Council, which represented thousands of cooks, bartenders, food servers, dishwashers, maids, and other hotel and restaurant workers. About Four! In the 1960s, she negotiated a contract for the Playboy Bunnies at its Detroit Club. By 1969, HERE had won a national contract covering all Playboy Clubs. Another founding member of CLUW was Evelyn Dubrow. For decades she served as chief lobbyist for create resume, the ILGWU, working for the passage of minimum wage, family and medical leave, civil rights and about four year fair trade legislation. Jewish labor leaders also made their mark in critical thinking steps, new fields for union organizing.

In 1966, professional baseball players chose Marvin Miller, a Jewish labor economist, to represent them. Over the next 16 years, he led the olds players through a number of art history successful strikes and negotiated their collective bargaining agreements. The consensus among players, sports journalists and four fans is that Miller belongs in the Hall of Fame, but opposition from the owners has kept him out. Other unions of essays year olds professional athletes have chosen Jewish leadership as well. In 1979, Norma Rae, a major Hollywood film appeared about a dramatic organizing drive among Southern textile workers that ended in victory for the Union. It was based on the true story of workers, led the Amalgamated Clothing and four olds Textile Workers Union, who fought a protracted struggle to win union recognition and collective bargaining rights at JP Stevens, a North Carolina textile manufacturer.

The heroes of the movie were Norma Rae Webster, a scrappy non-Jewish woman who worked in for software analyst, the mill until she was fired for union organizing, played by essays four year, Sally Field, and a union organizer from the thinking steps North named Rueben Warshowsky, played by Ron Leibman. It was certainly true to life that one of the essays about four chief union organizers, Bruce Raynor, was Jewish. In fact, it was Sol Stettin, a Jewish immigrant from create resume Poland, who, as president of the essays about four year olds Textile Workers Union, began the organizing drive at JP Stevens and engineered a merger with the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union during the struggle that is considered to be the key factor in the union victory. Stettin went on to found the American Labor Museum/Botto House in art history paper, Haledon, NJ, a historic site connected to the 1913 Paterson silk workers strike. He also taught labor studies at William Paterson College and Rutgers University where he was honored as the first “labor leader in residence.” Norma Rae ’s director was Martin Ritt, a Jewish leftist who has been blacklisted during the 1950s. Essays About Four! Nu? What did you expect? Unions are imperfect organizations. They can become undemocratic, corrupt and in the worse cases, mob-controlled. The single pro-labor organization that has relentlessly campaigned for union democracy the aptly named Association for Union Democracy.

It has been described as a “civil liberties organization that focuses on the rights of members in their union to free speech, fair elections, due process… and fair hiring.” Through education, legal action and organization, it has defended union dissidents and helped bring democratic reforms to unions including the United Mine Workers, the United Steelworkers and can everyone the american the Teamsters. Since its inception in 1969, its leader and guiding spirit has been Herman Benson, who turned 100 in 2015. He entered politics as a young socialist back in the 1930s, transitioned through the Trotskyist movement, then back to the Socialist Party before founding the AUD. His memoir, Rebels, Reformers and Racketeers: How Insurgents Transformed the Labor Movement, chronicles his fascinating career. The entire labor movement is in the doldrums, but Jews are still part of four olds it. Not so much in the rank and file as in critical thinking steps, leadership or in related fields. Needless to say, you do not find Jews anymore in the garment industry, except perhaps in management. In fact, Jews were never found in large numbers in the mass production industrial unions, the building trades (except the painters union) or in the transportation sector (except for taxicab drivers). But Jews can still be found in white collar public sector unions, especially in education or higher education and in year olds, unions in the entertainment industry, like Actors’ Equity and in the medical field, like the Committee of Interns and letter quality assurance analyst Residents. It is perhaps inevitable, that their numbers are diminishing as other minorities move into these fields and essays year olds young Jews choose different occupations. On personal note, I am employed as a staff representative for process steps, the Council of New Jersey State College Locals, affiliated with the American Federation of Teachers.

We represent over 9,000 full time and adjunct faculty, professional staff and librarians in the New Jersey’s nine state colleges and universities. About Four! When I was hired in 1988, six out of the nine local presidents were Jewish. Today, only two out of eleven are Jewish. Our union delegates and rank and file have also become less Jewish over essays the years. When I attended a massive labor rally of essays year public employees in Trenton a few years back, I joined Arieh Lebowitz, long time staffer for the Jewish Labor Committee and a few other JLC members in holding up signs. Can Everyone Achieve Essay! Union activists around us appears pleasantly surprised to see this small organized Jewish presence. Years ago, I think a Jewish presence would have been taken for granted. Essays Four! Now Jews are assumed to be middle or upper class.

There are still, however, many Jews among American labor leaders. They include: Stuart Applebaum (openly gay)—President of analyst Retail Wholesale Department Store Union now a/w United Food and Commercial Workers and also President of the Jewish Labor Committee Randi Weingarten (openly gay)—President of American Federation of Teachers Larry Cohen----until very recently, President of Communication Workers of America (CWA) Matthew Loeb—President of International Association of Theatrical and Stage Employees Eric Schwerzer—Executive Director of the olds Committee of critical thinking Interns and Residents Hetty Rosenstein—CWA director for NJ and related to the founders of the progressive Puffin Foundation. There are also many union staffers, but rather than rise through the essays year ranks, they come to the labor movement as college educated professionals. I am one of them. Jewish labor lawyers abound, but there may be just as many on the management side. Prominent Jewish labor leaders in can everyone dream essay, recent years included Bruce Raynor, former president of UNITE/HERE and Andy Stern, former president of the essays about four Service Employees International Union, who attracted a lot of publicity for his success in organizing low wage workers in essays year olds, the 1990s and essays about four year olds 2000s and as the prime mover behind the critical thinking process Change to Win labor federation formed in 2005. The Jewish Labor Committee continues in its role as the four year olds advocate for labor causes in create resume, the Jewish community and Jewish causes in the labor community.

It has organized many “Labor Seders” across the country to introduce non-Jewish labor leaders to the social justice theme embedded in essays about year olds, the Passover holiday. In the pursuit of social justice, there a few Jewish organizations worthy of mention including the paper New York based Jews For Racial and four year Economic Justice (NYC), the art history paper Washington D.C. based Jews United for Justice and a national organization, Bend the Arc (formerly known as Jewish Funds for Justice). Occupy Wall Street’s Jewish participants organized public High Holiday services. Social activist rabbis include, Jill Jacobs, author of There Shall Be No Needy (2009) and director of T’ruah: Rabbinic Call for Human Rights, Michael Lerner, editor of Tikkun magazine and essays about four year olds Arthur Waskow, founder of the Sholem Center. In the field of cultural arts, Bread and Roses founded by cover for software analyst, Jewish labor activist Moe Foner, as a project of year olds Local 1199 Drug and Hospital Workers in cover for software assurance, 1978, lives on. His brother Phil was a major historian of the four American labor movement. Contemporary Jewish labor historians include Stanley Aronowitz, David Brody, Melvyn Dubofsky, Nelson Lichtenstein and the youngest, Tony Michels whose latest book is Jewish Radicals: A Documentary History.

What accounts for the large role Jews played in the American labor movement, especially its progressive wing? Most of these Jews were immigrants from Czarist Russia. There Jewish men were doubly oppressed as Jews and workers. Jewish women were triply oppressed. Both tended to be more literate and urban than other immigrants to America. As perennial outsiders, Jews were positioned to take a critical of the status quo and more receptive to can everyone achieve the american dream, radical ideas.

Although Jewish clergy were conservative, they did not exercise the type of control imposed on essays about four, Christians by the Russian Orthodox or Catholic Church. Msword! Living as minorities in many countries, Jews had a broader and more critical perspective on the world than the Gentiles that surrounded them. Commenting on essays about year, the presence of Jews in can everyone achieve the american dream essay, left wing movements Marxist historian Isaac Deutscher observed: “I do not believe in the exclusive genius of any race. Essays About Four Olds! Yet I think that in some ways, they were very Jewish indeed. They had in themselves something of the quality assurance quintessence of Jewish life and of the Jewish intellect. They were a priori exception in that as Jews they dwelt on the borderlines of various civilizations, religions and national cultures. They were born and brought up on the borderlines of various epochs. Their minds matured where the most diverse cultural influences crossed and fertilized each other. They lived on the margins or in the nooks and crannies of their respective nations. They were each in society and yet not in it, of it and yet not of essays about it.

It was this that enabled them to rise in thought above their societies, above their nations, above their times and generations and to strike out msword mentally into wide new horizons and far into the future.” It has been suggested that some of the 613 mitzvot (commandments) that deal with economics and essays olds the prophetic teaching of write research for me social justice have also played a role in promoting Jewish progressivism. In my opinion, this is essays year wishful thinking. Those who study these Bible most rigorously have never been in the forefront of the struggle for social justice. However, there may be something to the theory that Judaism's emphasis on critical thinking, collective responsibility rather than original sin and individual redemption helps explain Jews’ attraction to movements that stress social solidarity and the common good.

Finally, the about year Jewish tradition of art history arguing with God and debating points of Jewish law, applied to the secular world, may have given Jewish men the chutzpah ---and the year olds analytic tools---to envision greater possibilities for social progress. American Jews have come a long way from the sweat shops and the urban ghetto of the cover assurance Lower East Side. We are no longer on the margins of society. (Three sit on the Supreme Court and about olds many more in corporate and bank boardrooms and in executive positions in law firms and the media.) Although the poor are still among us, Jews are, in dream, fact, among the wealthiest demographic. Jews still have their Bernie Sanders and Robert Reichs and the labor leaders cited in essays year, this essay, but we also have our Walter Annenbergs, Sheldon Adelsons and Bernard Madoffs. Achieve The American! As Jews shrink as a percentage of essays olds US population, and right leaning orthodox Jews growing in essays about year, number, it is uncertain whether Jews will continue to distinguish themselves as advocates for about year, the labor movement and social justice. Paper! To quote a quondam progressive Jew, The answer is blowin' in the wind. American Social History Project, Who Built America: Working People and the Nation's History, Vol. Essays About Year Olds! II. Antler, Joyce, The Journey Home: Jewish Women in America.

Baum, Charlotte, Hyman, Paula and Michael, Sonia, The Jewish Woman in America. Buhle, Paul, Encyclopedia of the American Left (numerous entries) Deutscher, Isaac, The Non-Jewish Jew and Other Essays. Dubofsky, Melvin, When Workers Organize: New York City in for me, the Progressive Era. Foner, Henry, A History of the Labor Movement in the United States. Goldberg, Itche and Rosenfeld, Max, Morris Rosenfeld: Selections from His Poetry and essays about four year olds Prose. Howe, Irving, World of Our Fathers.

Howe, Irving and Greenberg, Eliezer, Voices from the Yiddish. Jacobs, Paul, Is Curly Jewish? Jones, Thai, More Powerful Than Dynamite. Josephson, Matthew, Sidney Hillman: Statesman of American Labor. Laskin, David, The Family. Levin, Nora, While Messiah Tarried: Jewish Socialist Movements, 1871-1917. Michels, Tony, A Fire in art history, their Hearts: Yiddish Socialists in about year olds, New York. Moore, Debra Dash and Hyman, Paula, Jewish Women in America.

Muraskin, Bennett, Let Justice Well Up Like Water: Progressive Jews from Hillel to Helen Suzman. Rischin, Murray, The Promised City: New York's Jews, 1870-1917. Sachar, Howard, A History of Jews in America. Schappes, Morris, The Jews in the United States: A Pictorial History. Sorin, Gerald, The Prophetic Minority: American Jewish Immigrant Radicals 1880-1920. Stolberg, Benjamin, Tailor's Progress. Shuldiner, David, Of Moses and Marx: Folk Ideology in the Jewish Labor Movement of the United States.

Von Drehle, David, Triangle: The Fire That Changed America. The “Jewdayo” feature in Jewish Currents magazine is an excellent source of critical steps information on this subject. Cobble, Dorothy Sue, The Labor Origins of the Next Women's Movement New Politics (Summer 2005) Kahn, Mark L, “Profile of A Labor Activist: Harold Shapiro” Michigan Jewish History , (Fall 2000, p. 37-42) Kugler, Israel “The 1966 Strike at St.

John's University: A Memoir, Labor's Heritage , 9:2 (Fall 1997) Malmgreen, Gail, “Labor and the Holocaust: The Jewish Labor Committee and about the Anti-Nazi Struggle,” Labor’s Herit age 3:4 (October 1991) Popper, Nathaniel, “New Labor Leaders Take a Page from History, Forward , April 23, 2009. Copyright © 2017 Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations.