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De Little Women de Louisa May Alcott aux Quatre filles du docteur March Les traductions francaises d’un roman de formation au feminin. Universite Concordia, Montreal, Canada. Un article de la revue Meta. Tous droits reserves © Les Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, 2003. Salons. Resume! Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. L’article examine sept traductions et adaptations francaises de Little Women de Louisa May Alcott (1868), actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices en librairie ou en bibliotheque.

Afin d’observer les representations de la feminite qui y sont donnees a lire au lectorat francophone, l’analyse se centre sur le personnage de Jo, l’heroine anti-conformiste qui n’hesite pas a exprimer ouvertement son refus des limitations imposees a la condition feminine. Can Everyone The American Essay! Il apparait que la description physique et psychologique, les prises de parole et les actes du personnage ont subi, dans la plupart des versions francaises, des distorsions qui font de la Jo March francaise un personnage bien edulcore. This article examines seven French translations and resume layout, adaptations of about mending Little Women by resume layout Louisa May Alcott (1868), nowadays available to orthographe young female readers in resume, bookstores or in about mending, libraries. Layout! In order to create study the layout, representations of pullen womanhood for resume the French-speaking readership, the essays on culture and communication, analysis focuses on resume layout, the character of essayez cette orthographe Jo, the layout, anti-conformist heroine who openly rejects the children, constraints imposed on layout, women. Dissertation! It seems that most of the layout, French versions depict a Jo March who has been significantly expurgated; her physical and the american, psychological descriptions are distorted, as are her speech and resume layout, actions.

Peu de romans destines a un jeune public feminin, tous pays et langues d’origine confondus, ont connu en France et dans les pays francophones un succes aussi unanime et aussi durable que Little Women (1868) de Louisa May Alcott. Dissertation! Depuis les premieres traductions, qui suivirent de peu la publication (1872, 1880), le livre n’a cesse d’etre diffuse sous divers titres et en diverses traductions et adaptations. Resume Layout! Comme ce roman de formation suit l’evolution de quatre soeurs dont les ages s’echelonnent de seize a onze ans au debut du recit, il nous a semble pertinent de centrer cette etude sur les representations de la feminite, particulierement a travers le personnage de Jo, alter ego de l’auteure et heroine implicite, qui entretient des relations conflictuelles avec les modeles de conduite autorises. Etant donne l’abondance des traductions francaises, il a fallu definir des criteres de selection. Essayez Cette Orthographe! Il eut ete interessant d’adopter une approche diachronique et d’observer l’evolution des representations de la feminite dans des demarches traductives s’echelonnant sur plus d’un siecle. Resume! Dans le cadre restreint de cet article, nous avons opte pour l’approche synchronique et le point de vue de la reception. Pullen! Il nous a en effet paru justifie d’examiner la gamme de traductions francaises actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices, soit en librairie, soit en bibliotheque. Layout! Apres une enquete effectuee a partir de catalogues electroniques [1], sept traductions ont ete retenues pour une analyse contrastive : cinq actuellement disponibles dans les inventaires des libraires et deux autres plus anciennes, mais encore en circulation dans le reseau des bibliotheques. Apres avoir situe Little Women dans l’histoire de la litterature pour la jeunesse et de la litterature americaine, nous dresserons un panorama des traductions et adaptations successives du roman.

Quant a l’analyse contrastive proprement dite des traductions retenues, nous l’avons ordonnee autour de ce que Philippe Hamon appelle les « systemes normatifs-evaluatifs », mis en place par le regard, la parole, les actes et gestes, les sensations et le sens esthetique, le savoir-vivre enfin des personnages (Hamon 1984 : 103-217). Orthographe! Comme l’anticonformisme est le trait principal du personnage de Jo dans le texte source, une grille d’analyse prenant en charge la question des valeurs et des hierarchies dans le texte litteraire s’imposait. Layout! L’hypothese etait que le personnage de garcon manque, du tomboy , the thesis seekers, man of the layout, family, avec ses refus et ses ambitions, susciterait des resistances chez les traducteurs pour la jeunesse. Essayez Orthographe! L’analyse a bel et bien corrobore que c’etait Jo qui inspirait les plus grands ecarts dans les traductions, qu’il s’agisse du portrait physique et psychologique, ou des actions et des prises de parole les plus importantes. Nee en 1832 en Pennsylvanie, Louisa est elevee dans une famille et un milieu peu ordinaires. Resume! Son pere Bronson Alcott, philosophe largement autodidacte et pedagogue admirateur de Pestalozzi, cotoie Henry David Thoreau et Ralph Waldo Emerson. Cette! Durant l’enfance de l’auteure, il se lance dans diverses experiences communautaires.

Utopie fourieriste, philosophie transcendentaliste, ecole experimentale, l’enfant grandit dans ce climat intellectuel que l’on a pu appeler American Renaissance (Reynolds 1988). Resume! Ce cercle cosmopolite est en contact avec les grands mouvements socio-politiques europeens. Wall! La mere, Abigail May, issue de l’ establishment bostonien et d’une famille influente de l’Eglise unitarienne, admire la militante feministe Margaret Fuller ( Woman in resume layout, the Nineteenth Century , 1845). Msword Resume! Selon la formule de Madeleine Stern, feminism was in resume layout, Louisa May Alcott’s genes (Stern 1996 : vii). Essayez! En outre, les Alcott sont des abolitionnistes convaincus. Resume Layout! Avec l’aide de ses filles, Abigail May Alcott organise des ateliers d’alphabetisation pour les femmes noires (Barton 1996 : 152). On Culture! Pour Louisa May Alcott, que sa famille a placee au centre des grands debats de l’epoque, le feminisme est la reforme des reformes. Resume Layout! La critique feministe americaine l’a bien compris, qui considere Little Women comme l’un des premiers Female Bildungsromane americains (Langland 1983). Des sa parution en 1868, Little Women, or Meg, Jo, Beth, and thesis on aslyum, Amy a ete un best-seller. Resume! Ecrit en deux mois, il est d’inspiration nettement autobiographique.

L’entree du journal de Louisa pour mai 1868 nous apprend que le roman est entrepris a la demande de son editeur, qui lui demande une girls’ story . Mending! Ainsi Louisa May Alcott, qui avoue ne pas beaucoup connaitre et aimer les filles, a part ses soeurs, fait-elle partie du club select des ecrivains pour la jeunesse mandates par leurs editeurs [2] ! Little Women , qui assure instantanement la notoriete a la romanciere, n’est pas sa premiere oeuvre publiee. Resume Layout! En 1854 etait paru un recueil de contes, Flower Fables , ecrit a l’origine pour la fille d’Emerson. And Communication! Mais il faut surtout mentionner les recits abolitionnistes et feministes qui precedent Little Women de quelques annees, parmi lesquels Moods (1864) et Hospital Sketches (1863) qui transpose son experience d’infirmiere a Washington pendant la Guerre de Secession. Layout! Devant le succes de Little Women , l’editeur lui demande une suite : Good Wives parait en 1869. Essayez Orthographe! Ce n’est que dans les annees 1880 que les deux volumes seront reunis. Layout! Au fil des annees, Louisa May Alcott poursuit l’histoire de la famille March : Little Men (1871), Jo’s Boys (1886). Can Everyone Achieve Dream! Pour la jeunesse, elle signe aussi Eight cousins (1875), Rose in layout, Bloom (1876) [3] et Under the essays on culture, Lilacs (1877), et elle assume, entre ses deux voyages en Europe, la direction du journal Merry’s Museum (1868-1869).

Bien que l’oeuvre de Louisa May Alcott comporte plusieurs tendances : romans gothiques, fictions engagees sur le racisme et le feminisme, c’est comme auteure de Little Women qu’elle s’est acquis une renommee internationale : The Children’s Friend donne lieu de nombreuses conferences et elle n’hesite pas a rencontrer son lectorat [4]. Resume Layout! De son vivant, un million d’exemplaires du roman sont vendus. Pullen Dissertation! Little Women et sa suite Good Wives figurent dans toutes les collections de chefs-d’oeuvre internationaux pour la jeunesse. Resume Layout! Les auteurs de la recente Louisa May Alcott Encyclopedia soulignent le caractere resolument novateur du roman, particulierement en ce qui a trait aux representations feminines (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 181) et, globalement, sa valeur litteraire [5]. Msword! En terminant, il peut etre interessant de rappeler que dans l’edition de 1948 des Children’s Illustrated Classics , une note de l’editeur fait pourtant allusion aux resistances que l’engagement nordiste de cette fiction pourrait susciter chez certains lecteurs. Layout! Laissant entendre que le livre n’est plus lu par les jeunes generations, ce paratexte encourage les lecteurs eventuels a aller au-dela de la lecon morale explicite [6]. Create Resume! A en juger par le nombre d’editions et de traductions recentes des Quatre filles du docteur March , il est clair que ce dernier aspect – le traumatisme de la guerre civile etant peu probable – n’a pas diminue l’interet des lectrices francophones ! Traductions et adaptations francaises. Ce qui frappe des qu’on aborde la reception de Little Women en milieu francophone, c’est le nombre et la constance des reeditions. Resume Layout! Une consultation du catalogue de la Bibliotheque nationale de France donne une idee precise des traductions et adaptations « nouvelles », des « adaptations abregees », des « abreges » proposes par les divers editeurs. Achieve The American! Pour les annees 1990, pas moins de neuf de ces versions plus ou moins nouvelles ont ete deposees [7].

Puisque l’objectif n’est pas ici de faire l’histoire de la traduction francaise de Little Women , un survol des traductions successives suffira a eclairer notre propos. La premiere traduction remonte a 1872, soit quatre ans apres la publication de l’original ; publiee a Lausanne, elle est l’oeuvre de Madame Remy, connue egalement pour un manuel de francais [8]. Resume! La traductrice dit avoir « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur ». About Mending Wall! Puis, en 1880, Pierre-Jules Hetzel, celebre editeur francais pour la jeunesse, publie sous le pseudonyme de P.-J. Layout! Stahl, Les Quatre filles du docteur Marsch [sic] d’apres L.M. Can Everyone! Alcott , pour son « Magasin d’education et de recreation », fonde en 1864. Resume! P.-J. Essayez! Stahl a joue un role decisif dans la transmission de Little Women en domaine francophone. Resume! Cette adaptation, plus ou moins retouchee par les editeurs et des adaptateurs anonymes, continue d’avoir cours et nous l’avons incluse dans le choix de traductions. Thesis On Aslyum! Elle a impose au recit des distorsions qui n’ont pas ete rectifiees depuis. Ainsi c’est Stahl qui impose cette fiction du « docteur » March, en faisant jouer au pere dans l’armee nordiste, non pas le role d’un aumonier, mais celui d’un medecin [9]. Layout! Version plus acceptable dans une France republicaine ou s’affrontent les tenants du catholicisme ultramontain et de la laicite, peu receptive dans son ensemble au mariage des guides spirituels.

L’editeur estimait en effet que le livre « tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu […] reussir en France [10] ». Thesis Children! Si les traductions recentes ont corrige l’erreur dans le texte, le titre demeure inchange, et les lectrices francophones continuent de croire que le pere des soeurs March est docteur en medecine. Resume Layout! Son absence dans le premier tome permet d’ailleurs de ne pas se poser trop de questions. Essayez Orthographe! La seconde modification substantielle apportee au texte est le gommage systematique de l’intertexte bunyanien. Layout! Chez Stahl, la Morale familiere remplace le Pilgrim’s Progress . The American Essay! Or, ce texte cle de la spiritualite protestante (1678), evoque des le premier chapitre, imprime son mouvement au texte d’Alcott ; plusieurs titres de chapitres, completement modifies dans la traduction, y renvoient explicitement : « Playing Pilgrims » (ch. Resume! 1), « Burdens » (ch. Essayez! 4), « Jo meets Apollyon » (ch. Layout! 8), etc. Achieve The American Dream! Enfin l’adaptateur, qui de son propre aveu ne connaissait pas le second tome, a imagine un denouement, dont s’inspirent quelques adaptations actuelles.

La maison Hachette, qui racheta le fonds Hetzel, a publie l’adaptation de Stahl, sensiblement remaniee, dans les collections « Ideal-Bibliotheque » et « Bibliotheque Verte » [11]. Layout! L’editeur belge Casterman propose une reecriture anonyme basee sur cette adaptation, qui est dans l’ensemble plus fidele au texte de 1880 que ladite traduction de Stahl publiee par Hachette, comme nous le verrons plus loin. Dream Essay! On voit donc que les textes issus de l’adaptation de la fin du xix e siecle connaissent encore une importante diffusion. Dans les annees 1930 et 1940, Little Women a ete traduit et edite pour un public adulte [12]. Resume Layout! Au cours des annees 1980, apparaissent, dans des collections destinees a la jeunesse, des textes plus conformes a l’ethique moderne de la traduction, qui ne se permettent pas de coupures ou d’ajouts. Essayez Cette Orthographe! Nous en incluons deux dans le corpus, celle de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard (Folio-Junior et Gallimard Jeunesse) et celle de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche/Flammarion. Quelques mots suffiront a presenter les six adaptations et traductions selectionnees pour l’analyse comparative, que nous classons par ordre chronologique : l’adaptation de P.-J. Resume Layout! Stahl reeditee, avec diverses modifications, par Hachette dans « Ideal-Bibliotheque » ; la traduction anonyme [13] des editions G.P., collection « Rouge et Or » – ces deux ouvrages sont epuises mais connaissent encore une grande diffusion dans les bibliotheques scolaires et municipales qui n’ont pas toujours fait l’acquisition de nouvelles editions – ; l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, basee sur celle de P.-J.

Stahl ; la traduction de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard ; la traduction de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche ; enfin il nous a paru interessant d’inclure une adaptation recente, celle de Remi Simon pour Nathan. On Culture! Nous avons egalement examine celle de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, mais nous n’avons pu l’utiliser dans une comparaison systematique, etant donne l’importance des coupures apportees au texte (14 chapitres sur 23). Resume! Dans les passages traduits, on mending wall, peut observer une dependance a l’egard du texte de P.-J. Resume! Stahl. Essay! Nous nous y referons ponctuellement. Avant d’examiner les traductions sous l’angle particulier que nous avons choisi, quelques commentaires plus generaux s’imposent. Resume! La traduction parue chez G.P. Msword Create Resume! s’avere dans l’ensemble la plus litterale ; elle n’a pas craint de restituer les references a Bunyan en les explicitant [14]. Resume! Le texte de Casterman, base sur P.-J. Can Everyone Achieve Dream! Stahl, comme le prouvent de nombreuses formulations identiques, notamment dans les titres de chapitres, comporte des omissions, mais conserve aussi de son modele certains ajouts de l’adaptateur qui ont ete supprimes chez Hachette.

Ainsi, au chapitre 3, quand Meg et Jo se rendent au bal, il precise que Madame March n’a pu les accompagner, car elle etait souffrante et qu’elle a demande a une amie de veiller sur ses filles [15]. Resume Layout! Quand Jo rend visite a Laurie dans sa chambre, elle glose que le jeune voisin a ete malade et qu’il n’est qu’un « petit garcon » [16]. About Mending! A la fin du chapitre 12, se trouve une longue addition sur les vertus de l’Amerique et l’independance des jeunes filles americaines [17]. Resume Layout! Par ailleurs, cette traduction a une nette tendance a la miniaturisation, designant regulierement les protagonistes comme des « petites » filles et des « petits » garcons [18]. Create! Dans l’ensemble, elle ennoblit le caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin. Resume Layout! L’adaptation de Remy Simon pour Nathan se permet des ajouts sur le ton et les gestes dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, modifiant imperceptiblement le caractere des personnages. Essays On Culture! Ainsi, dans le chapitre 1, Meg regarde « d’un oeil critique » sa vieille robe « encore tres mettable », Jo siffle « d’un air meprisant ». Layout! Amy est qualifiee d’« insupportable ». Thesis Seekers! Quant a la servante, elle est regulierement appelee la « vieille » Hannah. Resume Layout! Enfin les traductions de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard et de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche se sont attachees a rendre integralement et fidelement l’oeuvre d’Alcott. Essay About Mending! Nous examinerons leurs choix de traduction sur la question de la feminite. Une jeune feministe americaine en francais.

Comme il a ete dit plus haut, la « poetique du normatif » proposee par Philippe Hamon a servi de cadre theorique a notre analyse des textes source et cible. Layout! Nous avons concentre l’analyse des traductions sur les passages ou le personnage de Jo se definissait ou etait vue par les autres, sur ceux ou elle se distinguait par les actions ou l’expression des gouts et de la volonte : les « nexus normatifs » (Hamon 1984 : 220). Essay About Mending Wall! Les travaux en linguistique de l’enonciation sur les marques de subjectivite nous ont aussi guides. Resume! Nous avons particulierement examine la traduction – et souvent la non-traduction – des phrases introductives du discours rapporte, porteuses d’indication sur les sentiments, la gestuelle, la voix des personnages. About Mending Wall! Dans les portraits et les descriptions, une attention particuliere a ete accordee aux termes evaluatifs, particulierement les adjectifs (Kerbrat-Orecchioni 1980 : 83-100), dont la traduction donne lieu a des choix tres revelateurs. Resume! Pour la brievete, nous refererons desormais aux traductions et traductions par les abreviations : H (Hachette), GP (G.P.), C (Casterman), N (Nathan), FJ (Folio Junior) et CP (Castor Poche), initiales de leurs editeurs respectifs, et a l’original par l’abreviation LW, toutes suivies du numero de page.

L’abreviation S est occasionnellement utilisee pour envoyer a l’adaptation de Stahl de 1880. Pullen Dissertation! Des tableaux presentes en annexe permettent de rendre l’analyse contrastive plus concise. a) Portrait physique et psychologique. Le premier chapitre comporte un portrait des quatre soeurs ; il est frappant de constater que c’est le portrait de Jo qui a ete le plus diversement traduit. Resume Layout! Les divergences apparaissent notamment dans la traduction des nombreux adjectifs qui permettent aux lectrices de se representer l’heroine (tableau 1). Orthographe! Les traducteurs francais tentent souvent d’attenuer ce qui dans l’apparence physique de l’heroine peut leur sembler outre ou disgracieux, en se conformant a leurs propres canons de la beaute feminine. Layout! Ainsi le comical nose devient « retrousse » ou « petit », la bouche ( decided ) est « bien dessinee ». Mending! Ces retouches, particulierement evidentes dans les versions derivees de l’adaptation de 1880, se retrouvent encore dans les plus recentes. Resume! Ainsi, dans CP (1995), Jo est « tres elancee ». Cette! L’hesitation entre « mince » et « maigre » est egalement revelatrice.

Les ajouts de l’adaptation de N (1988) soulignent la difference de Jo en la comparant a son ainee Meg, explicitant ainsi ce qui n’est qu’esquisse dans le texte source [19] : la seconde est « nerveuse » et ses mains sont « quelque peu masculines ». Resume Layout! Il est a noter que les portraits sont omis dans l’adaptation de C. A propos de l’adjectif tall , le premier evaluatif applique a Jo, il convient de remarquer que le meme adjectif est utilise par Alcott pour decrire Madame March lors de sa premiere apparition ( a tall, motherly lady , LW : 9). Thesis On Aslyum Children! Dans la suite du texte (chapitre 8), on resume layout, apprendra que cette ressemblance physique se double d’une ressemblance morale, car Jo a herite du temperament impetueux de sa mere. Essayez! Or, cet indice important a ete gomme dans quatre des six traductions analysees. Generalement decrits dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, le ton de voix, les expressions et la gestuelle de Jo ont ete dans une proportion importante effaces des traductions. Layout! Alcott fait un grand usage de ces segments textuels, que Gerald Prince appelle de facon eclairante le « discours attributif » (Prince 1978), caracterisant la voix, l’etat d’esprit du personnage, sa relation aux autres. Dissertation! La repetition de certains adverbes ou syntagmes prepositionnels en association avec la prise de parole de tel ou tel personnage a pour effet de fixer ses traits de caractere.

Ainsi, dans le cas de Meg : kindly, soothingly, graciously, with her sweet voice, mais aussi : with a complaining tone , petulantly , bitterly . Resume! Les traductions effacent souvent ces termes au profit d’incises neutres, ou les modifient. Thesis! Ces amputations et distorsions s’appliquent a l’ensemble des protagonistes, et on layout, ne peut dire que le personnage de Jo ait subi un traitement particulier a cet egard. Essayez! Il n’en demeure pas moins que les modalisateurs de la parole de Jo – briskly , impetuously, sharply, impatiently, fiercely – n’apparaissent que sporadiquement dans les textes francais. Au chapitre 2, dans la scene du matin de Noel ou les quatre soeurs decouvrent un exemplaire du Pilgrim’s Progress , l’instance narratoriale decrit Jo lisant, with the layout, quiet expression so seldom seen on pullen dissertation, her restless face (LW : 16). Resume Layout! Seule la traduction de FJ (27) a traduit restless (visage mobile). Msword Resume! La gestuelle du « garcon de la famille » ou du « fils Jo » est egalement l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction francaise. Layout! Exemple caracteristique, dans le chapitre premier ou Amy reproche a sa soeur d’utiliser des termes argotiques, la phrase introductive du discours rapporte se lit : observed Amy, with a reproving look at msword resume the long figure stretched on layout, the rug (LW : 3).

Dans les quatre traductions qui ont conserve le dernier segment, on thesis seekers, hesite entre l’elegant : une « longue silhouette etendue sur le tapis » (C : 9), la pointe de reproche : « longue silhouette etendue de tout son long… » (CP : 7), « grand corps etendu… » (GP : 11) et la nette reprobation, endossant ainsi le point de vue d’Amy : « a son ainee, toujours vautree sur le tapis » (FJ : 12) Un peu plus haut, l’une des paroles de Jo est suivie de l’indication : cried Jo, examining the layout, heels of create her shoes in resume, a gentlemanly manner (LW : 2). Pullen! Seules les deux traductions recentes l’ont prise en compte et rendue par « male assurance » (FJ :10) et « aplomb tout masculin » (CP : 6). Layout! Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies. Thesis On Aslyum Seekers Children! En voici un dernier des plus probants : au chapitre 3, l’heroine rajuste sa toilette avant de faire son entree a son premier bal. Resume Layout! La phrase introductive d’Alcott se lit : returned Jo, giving her collar a twitch, and on aslyum children, her head a hasty brush (LW : 34). Layout! Les traductions attenuent generalement la brusquerie des gestes de Jo, que l’on doit imaginer, « mettant sa collerette droite et donnant un dernier regard a sa coiffure » (H : 23-24 et C : 26), « donnant un coup de pouce a son col et un coup de brosse a ses cheveux » (GP : 36).

Seules les deux traductions recentes restituent cet aspect de la presence physique de l’heroine : « tirant sur son col d’un coup sec et rectifiant sa coiffure a la va-vite » (CP : 39), « qui passa vaguement la main sur son chignon et rajusta son col d’une pichenette » (FJ : 48). Le chapitre 20 comporte des notations decrivant precisement la gestuelle de Jo, qui ont ete soit gommees soit attenuees dans la traduction, comme le montrent les deux exemples qui suivent. On Aslyum Seekers Children! L’adolescente a une conversation orageuse avec sa mere a propos des amours naissantes de son ainee. Layout! Dans le feu de la conversation, elle joue avec ses cheveux, objet semiotique particulierement important dans le texte ; en effet, le chapitre 1 les decrit comme sa seule beaute ( her one beauty , LW : 5) et elle vient de les sacrifier pour apporter une aide financiere a son pere malade (chapitre 15). Essay Mending Wall! L’indignation de Jo s’exprime dans la facon dont elle tire sur ses cheveux : And Jo pulled her hair again with a wrathful tweak (LW : 261).

La colere, trait constitutif du caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin, a ete attenuee dans certaines traductions (tableau 2). Resume! Une seulement (GP) traduit : « avec fureur », deux preferent le desespoir (H et C), deux l’adverbe « rageusement », dont le contenu semantique est nettement affaibli dans les emplois modernes et souvent associe aux manifestations enfantines. Msword! Le geste meme de tirer est corrige dans certaines traductions : « se passer la main dans les cheveux » (H et C), « fourrager » (GP) et le diminutif « tortiller » (CP). Layout! Chez H et C, la gestuelle est transposee a l’expression du visage. Pullen! Plus loin, le mouvement de Jo se levant est compare a celui d’un pantin ( said Jo, unfolding herself, like an resume layout animated puzzle , LW : 264) ; l’image percue comme peu feminine est gommee dans les versions francaises a l’exception des deux traductions recentes. Le registre linguistique de Jo est stigmatise des le premier chapitre.

Au fil du texte, sa mere et ses soeurs citent ses ecarts de langage, entre guillemets. Seekers Children! Bien que la liberte verbale soit, avec le temperament impetueux, l’un des traits constitutifs de l’etiquette du personnage [20], les traductions ont souvent renonce a traduire son juron prefere, Christopher Colombus [21] ! (chapitres 12 et 17). Resume! C le tempere d’un « Priez pour nous ! » (75). On Aslyum! Curieusement, les traductions recentes proposent des equivalents : « Nom d’un petit bonhomme » (FJ : 203), « Sacre nom d’un pipe » (CP : 172), « Bon sang de bonsoir » (N : 94), traductions d’un ciblisme tres hexagonal sur la justesse desquelles on layout, pourrait s’interroger. Pour le portrait psychologique de Jo, nous nous attarderons sur les traductions du chapitre 8 : Jo meets Apollyon, ou l’adolescente fait l’experience des consequences desastreuses de sa colere. Mending Wall! Il faut rappeler que Little Women consacre un chapitre particulier a chacune des soeurs March et que celui qui est consacre a Jo est particulierement dramatique. Resume Layout! Or, ce chapitre donne lieu a des ecarts notables dans les traductions.

Rappelons brievement les evenements. Cette Orthographe! Amy, furieuse que ses ainees ne l’aient pas emmenee au theatre et particulierement ulceree par les rebuffades de Jo, brule le cahier ou celle-ci avait soigneusement recopie des contes de fee qu’elle esperait voir publies un jour. Resume Layout! Le lendemain, Jo, toujours en colere, omet de mettre Amy en garde contre les dangers de la glace trop mince et sa jeune soeur manque de se noyer. About Wall! Le chapitre est d’autant plus central que la perte du cahier touche aux ambitions les plus profondes de l’heroine. Layout! Il peut se diviser en trois sequences : la colere de Jo en decouvrant la calamite ; l’accident d’Amy ; la conversation au cours de laquelle Madame March avoue a sa seconde fille ses propres faiblesses.

Le titre du chapitre, reference au Pilgrim’s Progress , a ete sensiblement modifie dans trois des traductions : « Double choc » (H et C), « Ou Jo se met en colere » (N) ou explicite « Jo rencontre le demon Apollyon » (GP et FJ). Pullen! Le traducteur de G.P. Layout! fait oeuvre didactique en glosant her bosom enemy (LW : 96) : « son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin » (GP : 75). Le caractere, les reactions, les motivations de Jo apparaissent sensiblement differentes selon les traductions. Essays On Culture And Communication! La troisieme partie varie beaucoup en importance. Layout! Completement effacee chez C et N, elle est condensee tres allusivement dans la formule : « tout le monde a ses faiblesses » chez GP. The American Dream! H resume, mais conserve l’essentiel des confidences de la mere en deux paragraphes. Resume Layout! Seuls F et C donnent le texte au complet, y compris l’aveu de madame March au sujet des sacrifices qu’elle a du consentir pour sa patrie.

L’existence d’un modele maternel fort, voire heroique – personnage dont la charge positive se communique a l’heroine qui lui ressemble – est donc gommee dans la plupart des textes francais actuellement offerts aux jeunes lectrices. Dans la premiere partie, la violente reaction de Jo a l’egard d’Amy est diversement traduite, et souvent temperee, comme le montrent les extraits compares (tableau 3). Can Everyone Achieve The American! Il faut cependant noter qu’il y a moins de suppressions, dans ce chapitre dont les traducteurs ont reconnu l’importance, que dans le reste du roman. Resume Layout! Le tableau permet par ailleurs d’observer la parente de H et de C derives de Stahl. Achieve! La traduction de H est la plus edulcoree : Amy, secouee, perd la respiration et Jo s’en va « cacher » son chagrin. Resume Layout! Le geste final, le parting box , semble poser probleme a certains traducteurs. Can Everyone Achieve Dream Essay! Supprime chez Hachette, il reapparait sous forme de « tape » dans le texte de Casterman. Layout! Remi Simon (N) a arrete le bras de Jo. Msword! Ailleurs, on resume layout, parle de gifle, maitresse meme (GP) ou de taloche. Essay About Mending! Curieusement, aucun des traducteurs et traductrices n’a juge utile de faire mention de l’oreille d’Amy.

On notera aussi qu’une seule traduction (FJ) mentionne la nature violente ( hot temper ) de l’heroine. Des traductions minimisent egalement la profondeur du desespoir de Jo, quand elle voit son oeuvre litteraire detruite. Layout! Les ambitions personnelles du personnage sont nettement restreintes chez Hachette ou il s’agit de venir en aide a sa mere : « reve innocent ». Msword Resume! Casterman rencherit avec la mention d’un journal pour bebes ! Plus loin dans le chapitre, quelques ajouts des traductions tendent a ennoblir le personnage de Jo. Resume Layout! Dans l’adaptation de Stahl, Meg dit a Amy que Jo « est peut-etre la meilleure de nous toutes » (H : 62 ; C : 57). Can Everyone Dream Essay! Remi Simon ajoute qu’elle n’est pas rancuniere (N : 79).

La scene centrale de l’accident sur la riviere gelee et le role de Jo donnent egalement lieu a des distorsions (tableau 4). Resume Layout! Seules les deux traductions recentes osent plonger dans les mauvais sentiments de l’heroine. Pullen! Les paroles du petit demon sont diversement interpretees. Layout! La traduction de Casterman deculpabilise l’heroine. Achieve! Remi Simon (N) evacue l’idee du demon, et traduit dans un registre familier sa voix qu’il prete a l’heroine. Layout! Dans l’ensemble, les traductions en disent plus sur les bons sentiments de Jo que l’original. Create Resume! Strange feeling est traduit par « inquietude » par G.P. Layout! et Nathan. Dissertation! Casterman precise : « inquiete sans vouloir le paraitre » et ajoute « son bon coeur l’emportant », « se retourna vivement pour avertir Amy ». Resume Layout! Ces extraits suffiront a montrer que la traduction resiste dans l’ensemble a exprimer la violence des sentiments de Jo.

Viennent completer le portrait de l’adolescente anti-conformiste les appreciations de son entourage : ses parents, ses soeurs, l’acariatre tante March, les voisins amis – M. Create! Laurence et son petit-fils Laurie ; ces jugements sont vehicules par la voix narratoriale ou par les personnages eux-memes. Layout! Au chapitre 2, les soeurs qui vont porter leur dejeuner de Noel a une famille dans la misere sont comparees a des anges par l’heureuse beneficiaire. Dissertation! La voix narratoriale commente que le compliment fait particulierement plaisir a Jo qui s’est fait traiter de diable depuis sa naissance. Resume Layout! Voila un point ou les traductions different. About Wall! Deux des traductions (GP, N) ont supprime cette remarque, deux autres (H : 18, C : 19) l’adoucissent : « mais surtout Jo qui avait merite maintes fois (souvent recu C) dans son enfance le sobriquet de “petit diable” ». Resume! Jo a su s’attirer l’affection de tante March qui l’a engagee comme dame de compagnie : Something in msword create, her comical face and layout, blunt manners struck the essay about wall, old lady’s fancy (LW : 47). Resume! L’adjectif se revele encore une fois l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction du personnage de Jo : le syntagme comical face derange autant que le comical nose du chapitre 1. Can Everyone The American! Meme dans les traductions recentes, il est adouci par les hypocoristiques « frimousse » (FJ) ou « minois » (CP). Layout! P.-J. Essayez Orthographe! Stahl (H) avait resume les deux caracteristiques par « originalite ». Resume Layout! Remi Simon (N) a rendu comical face par « visage franc ». Resume! Le chapitre est supprime chez Casterman. Resume Layout! La traduction de G.P. Mending! est comme dans bien des cas la plus litterale (tableau 5).

Les manieres originales de Jo plaisent aussi a leur voisin Laurie des la premiere rencontre, manieres que les traductions ont hesite a qualifier : Jo’s gentlemanly demeanour (LW : 37) est omis par H et N, C (29) traduit « son air gentleman », les autres optent pour les manieres garconnieres (GP : 38, FJ : 53) ou l’attitude garconne (CP : 43). Layout! Enfin l’un des jugements les plus significatifs portes sur Jo est celui d’une jeune Anglaise visitant l’Amerique (chapitre 12). Achieve! Le passage vaut d’etre examine en detail (tableau 6). Resume! Il est curieux qu’aucune des traductions n’hesite a qualifier Jo de bizarre ou d’etrange par le truchement de la Britannique Miss Kate, mais que certaines hesitent a lui accorder de l’intelligence, la preferant « sympathique » (G.P.) ou instruite (C). Dissertation! Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies, mais nous esperons avoir montre que la caractere audacieux et extreme du personnage a ete estompe, et que l’energie extraordinaire de la queer girl ne passe pas toujours en traduction. L’expression de la volonte de Jo est un aspect que les traductions se revelent recalcitrantes a transmettre. Resume Layout! Jo entend dire ce qu’elle pense ( good, strong words, LW : 45), deteste attendre, veut agir sur les choses et se soucie peu du qu’en-dira-t-on. Pullen! Elle exprime son desir de liberte en toute occasion.

Bien que cela ait ete respecte, globalement, dans les traductions francaises, certains reves de Jo ont semble choquer. Layout! Au chapitre 14, apres une bonne course avec son ami Laurie, qui lui vaut la reprobation de Meg, l’adolescente s’exclame : « I wish I was a horse ; then I could run for orthographe miles in layout, this splendid air, and can everyone the american dream essay, not lose my breath. Resume! It was capital, but see what a guy it’s made me… » (LW :198). Essays! La tenue vestimentaire de Jo a en effet souffert de l’exercice, et elle a perdu toutes ses epingles a cheveux. Resume! L’allusion au cheval a ete gommee par GP et N. Thesis On Aslyum Seekers! Chez H (105) et C (88), a la suite de Stahl, on resume layout, choisit un animal plus associe a la feminite : « Je voudrais etre une gazelle, ou un cheval… », « Ou meme un cheval », concede C, plus fidele au modele (S : XXXII, 61). Les ambitions litteraires de Jo, composante essentielle du systeme de valeurs mis en place par le roman, sont souvent minimisees dans les traductions.

Cette censure, dont nous avons deja touche un mot au sujet du chapitre 8, s’observe encore au chapitre 14. Essay About Mending! Quand Jo avoue a Laurie qu’elle a soumis deux textes a un journal, le texte de H (102) et de C (85) suivant Stahl, se lit : « j’ai donne deux histoires de ma facon au directeur du Journal des Enfants ». Resume Layout! La fin du chapitre a subi d’importantes distorsions. Create! Quatre des traductions resument considerablement la fin de l’episode. Layout! La reaction de fierte de Madame March devant le succes de sa fille est escamotee chez H et N qui arretent le chapitre aux exclamations de joie des soeurs. Msword Resume! Le passage est supprime chez GP egalement. Resume! Chez C (91), Madame March « ne se montra pas mecontente », car « l’histoire etait gentille et convenable ; elle faisait honneur aux sentiments moraux de l’auteur » (S : XXXII, 61). Dissertation! Les dernieres lignes du chapitre : « For to resume layout be independent, and can everyone the american dream essay, earn the resume, praise of essays on culture and communication those she loved, were the resume layout, dearest wishes of essay her heart […] » (LW : 203), si importantes pour la comprehension globale du texte, n’apparaissent pas chez H, N, C. Resume! Chez GP, la fierte devient de l’approbation.

Encore une fois, seules les deux traductions recentes traduisent « faire honneur » (FJ : 254) et « faire la fierte » (CP : 215). On Culture! Il est curieux aussi que la fin de la phrase precedente ou Jo explique qu’elle aimerait aider ses soeurs ( support myself and layout, help the essayez cette, girls , LW : 203) est traduite par une generalisation – « aider les autres » (GP :131), « aider les miens » (CP : 215) – dans deux des traductions qui l’ont conservee. Resume! On peut faire un rapprochement avec les propos d’Amy au chapitre 15 : la plus jeune soeur, qui reve d’une carriere artistique, assure que dans dix ans Jo et elle auront fait la fortune de la famille. Thesis On Aslyum! Cette phrase a ete supprimee dans quatre des traductions (H, GP, C, N). Resume Layout! Il semble que, tout autant que la personnalite affirmee de Jo, ses ambitions professionnelles heurtent en traduction ! Le reve de liberte et d’independance s’exprime aussi quand Laurie, fache contre son grand-pere, propose a Jo de partir avec lui pour Washington (chapitre 21).

Dans le texte d’Alcott, l’heroine est fortement tentee par l’aventure et se bouche meme les oreilles pour ne pas entendre la suite des projets seduisants. Children! GP occulte completement ce moment de reverie de Jo, qui propose tout de suite a Laurie de l’aider a se reconcilier avec son grand-pere. Resume Layout! H (162) donne l’essentiel du passage et explicite meme she was tired of mending care and layout, confinement (LW : 273) par « elle etait fatiguee de sa reclusion aupres de Beth ». Thesis! Reprenant exactement son modele (S : XXXII, 283), C (163) rend compte de la tentation de Jo, mais moralise par des ajouts : « l’etourdie », « ses yeux tomberent heureusement [sur sa maison] », « ce fou de Laurie », etc. Resume Layout! N (167) resume en quatre lignes, concluant avec autorite : « son bon sens naturel reprit le dessus ». Essays And Communication! Encore une fois, les deux traductions recentes sont plus fideles. Les lamentations de Jo sur les restrictions imposees a la condition feminine (chapitres 1, 3, 5, 10, 16, 20, 21) ont ete traduites dans l’ensemble du texte sans trop d’amplification ni d’attenuation. Resume Layout! Toutefois, dans cette scene du chapitre 21, les differences dans les traductions francaises signalent un point nevralgique. Essayez Cette Orthographe! L’emphase de H et surtout de C contraste avec le detachement de N, alors que GP, comme on resume layout, l’a vu, n’a pas juge bon de s’appesantir sur la tentation de Jo (tableau 7). Que devient l’heroine contestataire a la fin du roman ? Plusieurs reponses sont donnees selon les points de vue narratifs. Resume! Jo elle-meme s’avoue tres mecontente et ne fait que se resigner aux fiancailles de Meg qui rejouissent toute la famille. Resume! Elle sent qu’elle n’a aucune prise sur les cadres sociaux. Msword Create Resume! Le parcours de l’adolescente au cours de l’annee delimitee par les deux fetes de Noel est decrit par monsieur March a son retour.

Il dit ne plus reconnaitre le « fils Jo » qu’il a laisse l’annee precedente. Resume Layout! Les transformations qu’il note concernent la tenue vestimentaire, le langage, les gestes, la voix, le developpement du sentiment maternel. Can Everyone Achieve The American Essay! La traduction de la fin de son discours presente quelques ecarts (tableau 8). Our black sheep , la metaphore paternelle est on resume, ne peut plus claire. Essay Mending! L’image a ete supprimee dans trois traductions (H, C, N). Layout! « Tete ronde » de H et C renvoie allusivement au sacrifice des cheveux au chapitre 15.

S’il enonce quelque regret, Monsieur March se felicite de voir sa fille entrer dans le rang. About Wall! Les traductions francaises n’ont ni force la note, ni attenue la portee du discours. Layout! L’adaptation de Remi Simon (N : 177) ajoute cependant, au nombre des progres de Jo : « et dont les recits sont publies dans les journaux ! ». Create! Observons aussi la facon dont les traductions ont rendu les trois adjectifs strong, helpful, tender-hearted ( woman ) qu’il oppose a wild (girl) . Resume Layout! Stahl (repris par C) avait opte pour quatre adjectifs « tendre, devouee, forte encore, mais civilisee ». Can Everyone The American Essay! H omet l’idee de force, tandis que l’adaptation de Simon la conserve. Layout! Dans les deux traductions recentes, proches l’une de l’autre, on wall, a prefere le courage. Resume! Il faut noter par ailleurs que la traduction « brebis galeuse » de FJ et CP est nettement plus pejorative que « mouton noir ». L’adaptation de P.-J.

Stahl, encore tres diffusee par l’intermediaire d’Hachette (Ideal-Bibliotheque et Bibliotheque verte) et de Casterman, prend beaucoup de libertes avec la fin de l’histoire [22]. Mending! H ajoute un chapitre « Perspectives d’avenir » qui a fonction d’epilogue. Resume Layout! La lectrice y apprend que Jo « renoncant a ecrire toutes les histoires qui lui passaient par la tete, s’adonna avec ardeur a la confection du trousseau de sa soeur » (H : 184) ! C (185-187) ajoute au dernier chapitre des details touchants, comme ce geste de Beth montant sur les genoux du fiance de Meg, Monsieur Brooke, pour lui demander a l’oreille s’il rendra sa soeur heureuse. Achieve! Monsieur March annonce que Meg se mariera dans deux ans, ce qui lui permettra de perfectionner son education : « Cela vous donnera aussi, Jo, l’occasion de completer la votre ». Resume Layout! En quel sens ? peut-on se demander. Essay Mending Wall! Et l’adaptateur conclut : « Monsieur March avait appris a Jo tout ce qu’il y avait a apprendre ». Resume! Enfin, la resistance de Jo au mariage de sa soeur a completement disparu grace a ses « sages reflexions », comme elle l’explique a Laurie. Msword Create! Mais P.-J. Resume Layout! Stahl allait plus loin encore en mariant Jo a Laurie. Pullen Dissertation! Fort curieusement, l’adaptation toute recente de Chantal Baligand reintroduit cette fin improbable et en totale contradiction avec le second tome. Layout! Elle reprend en effet, en l’abregeant, l’epilogue « Quatre ans apres » de 1880, ou le jeune dandy Laurie devenait fermier pour l’amour de Jo, avec la benediction de son grand-pere (Baligand 2002 : 153-156).

Ainsi, le denouement matrimonial – par une union que Louisa May Alcott s’etait toujours refuse a faire, en depit des prieres de ses lectrices [23] – est-il reactive a l’aube du xxi e siecle ! La seconde fille du « docteur » March, pale reflet de l’heroine d’Alcott ? Il serait a peine exagere de dire que des textes bien differents circulent actuellement sous le titre des Quatre filles du docteur March . Essay Mending Wall! Sur les six adaptations et traductions que nous avons analysees en detail, quatre presentent des distorsions marquees par rapport a l’original. Resume! L’amputation de chapitres (de trois a cinq), la suppression de passages complets ou d’elements significatifs des phrases y a pour pendant des gloses interpretatives, particulierement dans l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, la plus fidele a Stahl. Create Resume! Nous avons observe en particulier de quelle facon le « discours attributif » des paroles des personnages etait souvent prive des notations sur le ton, l’expression ou le geste. Resume! En outre, nous avons eu la surprise de decouvrir que, parmi les versions les plus recemment editees, se trouvaient aussi bien des traductions soucieuses de transmettre le sens global de l’oeuvre que des adaptations qui la denaturaient. Cette etude des representations de la feminite en traduction francaise, que nous avons centree sur le personnage de Jo, l’adolescente eprise d’action et d’independance, fait apparaitre – meme dans les traductions recentes, sous certains aspects – une edulcoration de l’heroine. Msword! Les traits physiques, la parole, les actions et les ambitions ont subi d’importantes retouches dans les versions francaises, qu’il s’agisse des adaptations, mais aussi des traductions. Resume Layout! Les soeurs March continuent de fasciner les lectrices francophones, car il reste toujours quelque chose des grandes oeuvres, meme dans les adaptations les plus desinvoltes ! Mais on essayez cette orthographe, peut deplorer que le premier contact avec ces heroines americaines du xix e siecle soit bien souvent fausse et appauvri, selon l’edition qui leur sera accessible en bibliotheque ou en librairie.

[1] L’enquete, effectuee a partir des ressources disponibles a Montreal, nous parait toutefois representative de la diffusion actuelle des traductions francaises de Little Women . Resume! Il est a noter qu’aucune traduction n’a ete publiee a ce jour en Amerique francophone ; une telle entreprise presenterait de l’interet en raison des liens etroits entre la culture source et la culture cible. On Aslyum Children! [2] « Mr. Layout! N. Pullen Dissertation! [Niles] wants a girls’story , and resume layout, I begin “Little Women”. Create Resume! Marmee, Anna, and resume, May all approve my plan. Essay! So I plod away, though I don’t enjoy this sort of resume layout thing. On Culture! Never liked girls or knew many, except my sisters, but our queer plays and resume layout, experiences may prove interesting, though I doubt it. Can Everyone Achieve The American Dream Essay! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 165-166) Sur les « vocations » d’ecrivains pour la jeunesse suscitees par les editeurs, voir par exemple Shavit 1986 : 33-57 ; Grenier 1993. Layout! [3] Pour juillet-aout 1876, elle note dans son journal : « Get an essayez cette orthographe idea and resume, start “Rose in essays, Bloom”, though I hate sequels. Resume Layout! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 201) [4] L’entree de son journal pour les mois de juin a aout 1875 fait etat de 92 visiteurs : « Fame is an essays and communication expensive luxury. Layout! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 196) [5] « Particularly when studied within its critical and essayez orthographe, cultural contexts, Little Women emerges as a substantial, multidimensional literary text. Resume! » (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 182) [6] « Indeed, one can guess that with the essay about mending wall, passage of layout time, when a new domestic culture is orthographe, sufficiently established not to layout be embarrassed by essays and communication reminders of the resume, past, youngsters no less than adults will return to on culture and communication it with fresh enthusiasm as a charming and resume layout, authentic record of and communication New England life in resume, the Civil War period.. Thesis On Aslyum Seekers Children! […] For the resume layout, contemporay reader, what is pullen, perhaps most striking about layout Little Women , even more archaic that its social scene, is the american, its overt moral emphasis. Resume Layout! » (Alcott 1948 : couverture arriere) [7] Pour la derniere decennie, outre les traductions selectionnees pour cette etude, il faut mentionner : une « traduction nouvelle » d’Anne Joba avec dossier de Nicole Bon aux editions France loisirs, Paris, 1992 ; une « adaptation abregee » anonyme aux Editions du Tournesol, Limay, 1994 ; une traduction anonyme avec dossier de Francoise Gomez chez Pocket Junior, Paris, 1995 ; un abrege de Marie Page aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1995 ; une traduction d’Anne Joba et France-Marie Watkins aux editions Hachette, 1995 ; une traduction anonyme aux Editions de la Fontaine au roy, « Arpege Junior », 1996 ; une adaptation d’Evelyne Hiest-Lallemand aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1997 ; une adaptation de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, Chevron, 2002. Pullen! [8] Madame Remy (1872) : Petites femmes , Lausanne, H. Resume Layout! Mignot, « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur » ; Madame Remy (1878) : Dictees sur l’orthographe usuelle, les participes et les principales difficultes de la grammaire , Paris, A. Essay About Mending! Pigoreau (3 e edition). Resume Layout! [9] « I think it was so splendid in pullen dissertation, father to resume layout go as a chaplain when he was too old to on aslyum be drafted, and layout, not strong enough to thesis on aslyum children be a soldier, said Meg warmly. Layout! » (Alcott 1948 : 10) Traduction de P.-J. On Culture And Communication! Stahl : « Comme c’est beau a papa d’etre parti a l’armee comme medecin, puisqu’il a passe l’age et qu’il n’aurait plus la force d’etre soldat ! dit Meg avec enthousiasme. Resume Layout! » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 30) [10] P.-J. Msword! Stahl ajoute au titre une note ou il s’explique sur son travail d’adaptation : « Cet ouvrage se compose de deux gros volumes dans le texte americain. Layout! Je n’ai connu que le premier, par une traduction litterale de M. And Communication! Lermont.

Le second, me dit-on, n’eut pas ete possible pour nous. Layout! Mais la donnee generale de l’oeuvre m’a paru si interessante que j’ai cru bon de faire pour elle le travail d’adaptation que j’avais fait precedemment pour les Patins d’argent . Can Everyone Achieve Essay! N’ayant eu a ma disposition que la premiere moitie de l’ouvrage, j’ai du, en bien des points, le modifier, l’arranger, pour le conduire a un denouement qui ne pouvait etre celui de l’auteur, puisque je l’ignorais. Resume Layout! Le livre, tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu, je le crains, reussir en France ; mais la physionomie des caracteres des quatre soeurs meritait d’etre conservee dans ses lignes principales. About! J’ai cru pouvoir en faire une lecture agreable et profitable pour nos jeunes lecteurs, et je ne regretterai pas mes efforts si j’y suis parvenu. Resume! » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 24) [11] Reeditions successives : 1923, 1934, 1952 pour la « Bibliotheque Verte » et 1950 pour « Ideal-Bibliotheque ». On Culture! [12] Petites Americaines , Mme Tissier de Mallerais, Hachette, 1935, Meilleurs romans etrangers ; Little Women . Resume! Les Quatre soeurs Marsch (sic) , Henriette Rouillard, Paris, Delagrave, 1936 ; Les Filles du Dr. About Wall! March . Resume! Traduction nouvelle de Madame H. Seekers Children! Giraud.

Paris, Pre-aux-Clercs, 1945. Resume! Les Quatre soeurs March , Germaine Lalande, Paris, Hazan, 1946. Thesis On Aslyum! [13] La premiere edition, parue sous le titre Petites bonnes femmes, les quatre filles du docteur March , portait la mention « Adaptation de R. Layout! et A. Resume! Prophetie » (Paris, G.P., « Bibliotheque Rouge et or », 34). Resume Layout! [14] Exemple, au chapitre 8, « mais son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin, etait toujours pret a la faire s’irriter, et a vaincre sa resolution » (75) traduisant « but her bosom enemy was always ready to dissertation flame up and resume layout, defeat her » (Alcott 1948 : 96). Essays On Culture! [15] « Madame March, mal portante, ne pouvait les accompagner, mais elle les avait dans la journee recommandees aux soins d’une de ses amies, qu’elles devaient retrouver au bal. Resume! » (Alcott 1993 : 25 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 89) [16] Jo plaide aupres de sa mere : « – Il est malade, avait-elle dit, et tres change, chez les Gardiner, il m’avait presque fait l’effet d’un petit jeune monsieur, mais je vois bien que ce n’est encore qu’un petit garcon. Msword! » (Alcott 1993 : 37 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 153) [17] On y lit par exemple qu’« un Americain rougirait de penser a la dot de sa fiancee et [que], s’il lui arrivait de s’en inquieter et de s’en enquerir publiquement, il ne trouverait plus une fille honorable qui consentit a porter son nom ». Layout! Et la visiteuse britannique, admirative de tant de vertu, s’exclamerait : « Dieu veuille qu’en vieillissant l’Amerique ne perde pas ces sages principes. Essayez Cette! » (Alcott 1993 : 78-79 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 377) [18] Monsieur Laurence appelle Laurie, age de seize ans, un « marmot » (Alcott 1993 : 168). Resume Layout! [19] Ajout de l’adaptateur : « Il y avait evidemment un air de ressemblance entre elle et Margaret, mais Jo etait tres differente d’aspect. Mending! » (Alcott 1988b : 9) [20] Voir, au chapitre 4, sa reponse au reproche de Meg, « Don’t use such dreadful expressions » : « I like good, strong words that mean something. Resume Layout! » (Alcott 1948 : 45) [21] Il faut en outre noter que le choix de cette exclamation n’est peut-etre pas fortuit, Louisa May Alcott etant nee un Colombus Day, le 29 novembre 1932 ! [22] Dans un paragraphe tenant lieu de postface, P.J. Resume! Stahl assure que « pas plus qu’un etre humain un livre ne voyage impunement » et qu’il faut se resigner a « sacrifier quelque chose aux gouts et aux moeurs » du pays qui adopte le livre (Stahl 1880 : XXXII, 344). Resume! [23] Cf. Essays On Culture! l’entree de son journal pour le 1 er novembre 1968 : « Girls write to resume layout ask who the can everyone achieve the american essay, little women marry, as if that was the resume layout, only end and essay about, aim of resume layout a woman’s life. Essayez Cette! I won’t marry Jo to resume layout Laurie to cette please any one. Resume! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 167) PhD, is orthographe, professor in resume, the Department of thesis on aslyum French Studies, Concordia University, Montreal. Resume! Her main research interests include medieval studies and can everyone essay, children’s literature.

She has published numerous articles on resume, the novel and can everyone achieve the american essay, theater for layout the young, and essayez, is currently doing research on layout, the translation of essay mending children’s literature from resume layout, English into resume French. Resume! She also has research projects, such as “Socio-aesthetics of the essays, novel for resume young people in on culture and communication, Quebec,” funded by resume layout the Social Sciences and thesis on aslyum children, Humanities Research Council of resume Canada, and essayez orthographe, “Children’s literature: a hermeneutic approach,” a team-project funded by layout the Fond de recherche sur la societe et la culture (Quebec). a) Textes ayant servi de base a l’analyse comparative. Narratology meets Translation Studies, or, The Voice of the essay about mending wall, Translator in resume, Children’s Literature. Par Emer O’Sullivan. When Children’s Literature Transcends its Genre : Translating Alice in essays and communication, Wonderland. Par Douglas Kibbee. When Modern Little Red Riding Hoods Cross Borders… or Don’t… Par Sandra Beckett.

The Translation of resume Culture-Bound Elements into essays Finnish in layout, the Post-War Period.

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Take a stroll through Inspiration Forest with the following brands that nailed it#8230; You’ve heard the theory about six degrees of separation, right? Well back in 2016 Facebook crunched their data and found that each of Facebook’s global active users is pullen dissertation connected to every other user by an average of three and a half friends ; 3.5 degrees of separation. Ding, ding, ding that’s the alarm bell alerting you to the opportunity to seriously enhance your brand reach. For advice on how to layout, do that, you could do worse than take a look at Qweertee. Essay Wall! Qwertee sell delicious-looking limited edition t-shirts. The catch? Each one is resume available for just 24 hours. To build the buzz around each day’s fresh t-shirt design, Qwertee give one away for free day in, day out.

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colour purple essay This is all published freely on the internet by us to further the scene, not to give any seller undeserved credibility. We Do Not Authorise any Copying, Republishing or Quoting of any of our Sections on ebay, any sales sites or anywhere else. Record Info Contract Press pages: Original research, photos of resume layout, our records text ©2017 by select45rpm. PLEASE DO NOT EMAIL ASKING FOR FREE ADVICE. YOU'RE GETTING MORE ADVICE HERE THAN ANYWHERE ELSE, SO UNLESS YOU WANT TO PAY US TO RESEARCH SOMETHING, DON'T EXPECT ANYTHING MORE FOR FREE! Buying Vinyl today, or anything that makes more money than most similar items, you really do need to be sure you are actually buying the Original if you are paying a price that the Original would command. If you are only on culture and communication, buying cheap records then it's unlikely you'll get any Fakes, but Where The Money Is Goes The Faker.

The amount of genuine reissues on resume, different labels and numbers is also mixed with a large amount of essays, repros that are now over resume layout 30 years old looking very similar to essayez orthographe, the real item, which are unlicensed bootlegs. Also the amount of new Bootleg copies of resume layout, rare 45s available seems to grow every week the copyright owners aren't doing anything about it, so more are to pullen, come from layout, varied sources. Some Official Licensed reissues may confuse too, so look for text on on culture, the label to resume, show they are. Can Everyone Achieve Dream Essay? Only Comparing to known Real Ones will teach you. Layout? To the experienced buyer these stand out wall obviously as repros but you have to learn to spot real from repro without wasting money when other bids may hint at resume an item being more than it is, and the Sheep Effect gains more bidders who think if others bid it must be right. Those other bidders may not really exist however. One seller of on aslyum seekers, obvious (to us) Fake Beatles Demos relists them for the third time in late Nov 2013 after getting lots of bids on the previous outings, enough to trap the unwary be sure one will sell as an resume, Xmas Gift to an unwary buyer. Only proves ebay don't care, so only can everyone the american dream essay, you can safeguard your money from layout, these parasites with fake items. See handle a lot of real original records.

Records aren't as around 'on the street' as much as they used to be, the easiest place is likely a car boot sale just to find some junk 45s to learn from. A typical rare item, eg a ?300 50s London was issued amid Pat Boone records or a Major Lance Columbia was amid Ken Dodd 45s, so buy a cheap handful of those see what they are like. But you're not going to find many pre 1956 Sun 45s to compare your Elvis too confusingly each one looks different had variations in essays, pressing! 60s Mod Psych collectors will see the UK biggies are mostly on big labels, so buying a Seekers or Walker Brothers hit cheaply will give you a good item to resume layout, compare your prized 45 to. as a Reliable Reference to see what Original Records look like. Msword? We photo all our Stock out resume of the orthographe sleeve. Note UK vinyl peculiarities like pronged centres, serrated raised rims on the label edge area ridges bumps in the label area.

There are very few sellers who photo out of sleeves our photo technique gives a good 3D idea of what the vinyl looks like, especially on the darker labels. They were and resume are still usually openly sold as repros when new to those who are into the music styles. But age of them lack of knowledge of their existance can confound even seasoned record buyers. Msword Resume? The early repros from the early 70s of resume, Rock Roll Doowop may now be aged looking as nearly 40 years old when the achieve dream essay original is just 50 years old. But a repro is worth a fiver unless there is demand for it it's an early one. Big profits too: costs under ?1 each to press a few hundred copies with no royalties to pay. You as the buyer will likely get stung by buying a repro at some time, especially the resume layout Northern Soul scene where 95% of copies of Gloria Jones 'Tainted Love' (origs are on styrene with black labels a Delta number) and also Coasters 'Crazy Baby' (origs always have the AT notation on the vinyl can be either thick vinyl or styrene).

But if you are happy with a repro, and most are of good sound quality, then don't just avoid them because they are unofficial. The LP market is similar, but as card covers are involved, the cheaper quality lack of age smell on essayez orthographe, a supposed 30+ year old LP gives them away. There is even a strange USA-looking repro of a UK London Skyliners track, which must be from layout, 1979 when Art Garfunkel had a hit with 'Since I Don't Have You'. Create Resume? Other odd USA-looking repros of UK items are the Davy Jones King Bees Vocalion oddly the Southlanders on Decca. This is getting a bit too much now. One Top Rated Seller on ebay makes up Fake Demo Labels sticks them on the Original Vinyl. ?12+ for resume a 10p print out a 25p scratchy record!

To those who know, these are obviously Fake but sadly you can be sure they will be passed off as Original by others as some have tried with the No-Centre bootlegs. Pullen? Odds are a person buying one of these now or later will never be a collector but want a Rarity on the cheap and never research what they are buying. Resume Layout? All we can say is read this page carefully look at our Record Sales Pictures simply as an idea of what the essays on culture Original Vintage Vinyl looks like. Resume Layout? Why would anybody want these things? They are Rubbish. It is wall like those who buy Fake Rolex watches or Gucci Handbags, they think these fake things will impress people as unaware as they are. You can hear people in the Future saying It has a serrated edge the stamper numbers like the regular issue, it's worth a fortune! But naturally only resume, those unaware of essay about wall, a proper Demo label, as these are Fakes are basically copying one, will not realise the layout Original Demo Labels were Pressed Into The Vinyl, not stuck on. Be careful out there folks if we get any, we'll smash them up as we have with similar Fake label on Original Vinyl jobs. There are even Fake Beatles Polydor Demos that use a Demo label from 1965 on 1962-64. Now we had a genuine Polydor demo of 'Ain't She Sweet' another 1963 Polydor demo, so we know what they should look like.

Nothing like the fakes. Essay About? Are people stupid enough to stick Fake Demo labels on the original UK Polydor vinyl? Seems unlikely. Resume Layout? It leads sadly to Fakes being offered as Genuine to more casual buyers after a Historical Collectable, not real record collectors. They'll be conned. By the amount of about mending wall, these EMI must have made many dozens. Resume? In reality a Genuine Factory Sample you'd be lucky to ever see 5-12 of ever as they were thrown away or used through time in low grade. All we've seen are pathetic fakes with gummed labels soaked off others poorly glued on hiding tears writing by their awkward positioning. Looking at can everyone the bids, there is often an eager underbidder keeping interest alive yet they oddly never win.

If buyers believe these fake stickers stuck on genuine but label-damaged copies are worth ?200+ then it's their call, just wait until you try to sell the things. We see buyers willingly pay high prices for layout fakes, repros bootlegs thinking they are real. The Vinyl is Original as is easy to see, but the foolish bidders are tricked with worthless gummed stickers. Can Everyone Achieve The American? Caveat Emptor seems to resume, be forgotten in msword create resume, the false excitement of resume layout, bidding for wall a record probably only worth ?20-?50 once it's fake stickers are removed revealing tears writing. Love Me Do on 1962 Red Parlophone is a very common Top 20 record, Please Please Me is much harder to find but there are always lots of resume, copies around. We saw some very obvious ones on ebay from a seller in wall, 2013. Beatles Abbey Road Export LP a few Beatles Demos . All Fake scanned labels stuck onto common original vinyl. UK EMI labels are pressed with the resume vinyl, not glued on!

The Abbey Road was hand cut easy to on culture, spot it was fake, but sadly bidders only see a bargain and some gullible fool paid ?500+ for it! One Beatles Demo had two sets of serrated record edges, one on the real black label it was the other from the Fake label, slightly shrunk to stick in the label space. Resume Layout? EMI Demos usually have bigger labels that go beyond the serrated edge. The obvious untidily cut with a scalpel centre push out spaces means we spot it in a second. Yet if they were real they'd make high prices. Sadly the fakes sold for ?275 to ?500. Essays On Culture And Communication? All hidden under Private listings which usually means fake bids to layout, give it an air of authenticity. They had a Fake Stones Come On Demo too got ?250+ for it. Ebay clearly don't care as the guy relists the same ones again shortly after, third time now!

So why bother reporting the fakes? If you have ?100s to essay, spend on Beatles Demos, do yourself a favour have a good look at all our label photos of other EMI Demos to see what a real one looks like. Resume? Another Fake with bids over on aslyum seekers ?100 was Beatles 'From Me To You' typical UK vinyl with a Fake 'Dick James Music' demo label on. How exiting! How FAKE! These labels were only resume layout, used on acetates so any bidder is thesis on aslyum seekers children as fake or gullible. It's annoying perhaps, but unlikely there are any real bidders (we hope). One seller of Billy Fury items had a batch of resume layout, perfectly genuine Demos Acetates, but we spotted one faked up Demo amid the real items. It sold. the buyer was happy with it as feedback proves as they bought several others with it. Cette Orthographe? Oh well. Go buy a cheap one of a far less wanted artist see what a Real Demo looks like.

Beyond that, you are really on resume layout, your own. to buy these items on ebay is create resume as trustworthy as buying a Rolex or a Gucci handbag. Resume Layout? Well faked up. Always a problem on existing Rare picture sleeves, but over the last few years, there are an increasing amount of msword create, Fake Fantasy picture sleeves turning up on layout, ebay. In reality you can see they are modern, but on ebay people believe vague descriptions or no description pay high for fake goods. These look instantly wrong to one who knows the scene with things not looking right, but with there being Export Picture sleeves in Europe with UK vinyl inside, people are too willing to essays, believe. Resume? One we've seen as a Fake multiple times is a Diana Dors 1960 Pye one,. Wall? How anyone thinks that looks real beggars belief, bad typeface, not a good picture cheaply printed, but a ?10 record sells for layout a high price.

Similar Fake Billy Fury sleeves appear be sure many Beatles Elvis similarly. We saw with Coins years ago that High Value items were being recreated sold as Replicas. It's just how any market is thesis children be sure many unaware buyers have bought non-Original items. Fantasy Items means an item that never existed but is faked up to appear Original amid other items. Resume Layout? The possibilities are endless these started in the 1970s with Beatles David Bowie fakes that oddly now are collected for being early Fakes. But to the collector, they know exactly what they are. There are some titles that so often get passed off as originals. Can Everyone Achieve The American Dream Essay? If buyer doesn't bother to check, then it's their choice. Resume Layout? The most common bootlegs-repros that look old as 1970s ones are Gloria Jones-Tainted Love on blue-green Champion Barbara Mills Queen Of Fools on fake USA Hickory using UK style lettering but with a USA type large centre. But two we see that make high prices are more worrying.

The Coasters Crazy Baby has more than one Bootleg that gets sold as an original, the Originals are thick East Coast Pressings or Styrene West Coast ones but always have groove markings like other Atlantic-Atco 45s, easy to essayez cette, compare easy to mark them in so we'll not say. The originals are Hifi quality the Bootlegs sound rough. Another we often see sold as Original is The Vibrations-Cause You're Mine . The original Epic is a white-red Promo or a Yellow issue with Narrow Tall Print. The one we see making big money is an early 1970s Repressing with Stereo on the label , it's status is like the Okeh ones with 'small 45rpm' is resume layout is official product with stamped numbers but an early 1970s pressing to cope with the msword create resume huge demand for resume certain 45s. No-one wonders why they are always Mint? Buyers think the about wall Mono 45 with Stereo 1970s wider print is real in July 2015 insanely pay ?180-?200+ for a repressing! Other 1970s Bootlegs passed off as originals because they have Stamped Matrix Numbers are The Fuller Brother-Time's A Wasting Lorenzo Manley-Swoop Down On You.

But the poor sound quality gives it away to find a genuine stock copy of Lorenzo one we've only seem Bootlegs, if the white Promos are real. Resume? The Fullers one has a totally different label design to the original there are enough sites detailing the on aslyum seekers children original on glossy RCA type pressings. These are neatly machine etched like an engraving machine with thin letters like UK EMI Parlophone, Columbia, Philips Stateside, Decca, London, Pye etc or thick letters like 1965 era Sue, Island etc. USA vinyl is similar. Resume? Some are stamped like Philips, Fontana etc. There is usually a style that is typical to the era, eg Island started with Stamped numbers in on culture, 1962, they were thick machine etched in 1964, the resume 1966-68 white reggae series were thin machine etched the seekers children pink 1967 era onwards were machine stamped. The number in the run out layout area usually relates to a matrix number on the vinyl. Can Everyone Achieve? But to resume, understand this, buy a box of cheap 50s 60s vinyl and learn what there is. Some matrix numbers show in our Record Sales photos as we photo out of the mending sleeve.

But be aware there is no 100% rule, some 1965 UK Polydor have hand etched numbers, some are more confusing like USA early 1950s RCA with DJ copies often hand etched, but Stock copies that are machine stamped. Resume? Many post 1970 UK records are handwritten, eg Pye changed from machine etched to handwritten in the early 1970s. USA vinyl is usually handwritten again East Coast (vinyl) West Coast (styrene) pressed copies can vary as some are stamped others not. The American Dream? Only by seeing original vinyl of 'worthless' artists on a similar era label will you be able to tell all the signs an item is real or not. If you are buying Demos of resume, name artists as artifacts, be sure 9/10 Beatles Demos on ebay in resume, 2013 are fake, though no-one will fake a Ken Dodd demo, so buy one to see what it looks like. and can spot reissues later pressings with ease. We collected USA vinyl in several genres at resume layout one time so are aware of those that got reissued or bootlegged. You can be sure we can tell it's an Original. The Beatles 45s were reissued repressed many times, if not always constantly available in between.

These records were repressed with the style of label etc that was the standard at the time of repress. A 4th pressing of an LP is often sold as an Original, just like in essayez cette, books certain 1940s Annuals with ISBN codes are sold as originals, but ISBN codes only began in 1966. In years to come, records with barcodes that first appeared mid 80s will be passed off as 60s or 70s originals unaware people will believe it! like any sweeping statements there will be exceptions, but this will help weed out fake 45s even LPs. A fake or repro 45 of any track is resume layout worth ?6-10 unless that repro itself has got established as a collectable in thesis on aslyum children, it's own right, ie the issued 1973 dated Mariano 1950s RR and RB USA 45s plenty of layout, Northern Soul. Only you can decide what a non genuine item is worth. No Bootleg or 'Repro' is on aslyum worth more than ?6-8 unless there is a known collector demand for the Repro. Azie Lawrence new bootleg for ?30 is an insult! Some late 1960s-early 1970s bootlegs of Soul Rockabilly are now collected in layout, their own right, especially if the original is orthographe unfindable usually highly priced. to describe any record some amateur has: eg 1954 London Slim Whitman on round centre with a silver top could be a 6th pressing, yet it'll still be called a rare 1st pressing. Prince Buster 'Al Capone' on resume layout, the beige label is pullen dissertation a 1972 press, not the Original often touted.

Most issues are on dark blue, but with it being a 1965 record belatedly becoming a chart hit in 1967, only an layout, expert can pick out the 1st 1965 press from the 1967 one! Similar with The Skatalites 'Guns Of Navarone'. Fake Demo Labels Stuck On Original Vinyl. There was a batch of can everyone achieve essay, these done by one person in layout, the late 1990s now others are selling these on ebay which we find unacceptable. They got original common vinyl by big Names, ie Beatles, Stones, Billy Fury etc and scanned up real demo labels from other less valuable records. Wall? They then carelessly used any modern font copied the resume layout wording on a computer artwork program printed them out. They then stuck them onto achieve the american dream essay, the original vinyl used a scalpel to resume, cut out the push out centre area centre hole. Msword Resume? This is the big giveaway: know the layout Font used, know UK Demos generally have labels pressed with the vinyl know the dodgy cut-out of the msword create resume centre holes. If we ever get any we smash them up so they are gone, but sadly these are still around one creep on ebay got some idiot to pay ?100 for a fake Beatles PPM demo.

Buyers of these items want an artifact know sod all about resume, vinyl sadly are the victims of their own lack of knowledge. We knew one guy who bought some from this seller when it was just starting his scam was to price a ?100 demo for pullen dissertation ?30, so the gullible-greedy buyer would jump at resume layout such a big bargain not bother to check what the msword item really was. Naturally only inexperienced buyers would fall for it this person is layout still active on pullen dissertation, ebay. If a UK Demo has an official Not For Sale white label with the layout Label name it will be pressed with the can everyone achieve dream vinyl always. Resume? The only exception were UK MGM who done odd Demos with basic details printed on essays and communication, the White demo label then had Pink MGM demo labels glued over. As these often come loose, look under you'll see the basic one. were never used before 1983 on records. Fax numbers were new in the 1980s website names in the later 1990s. of classic Studio One tracks look aged as they are poorly pressed on old equipment.

The 'noise' on these repressings is actually from using the corroded copper plates raw, rather than preparing them first. The vinyl itself is not the noisy part, the layout noise is gaps in the record surface the verdigris (green copper rust) that the on aslyum humidity creates on the copper. This is resume a Minefield too. For example, the Billy Fury 10 LP was originally a 1960 LP, a thick slab of vinyl, but it was reissued in 1982 on a thinner pressing but official product so quality is resume good. Many will think their 31 years old one if not so new looking is real. Layout? But the 1982 has 'LFT' as the catalog number and handwritten matrix numbers. The original has 'LF' and orthographe is machine stamped. Then Elvis 10 LPs were repressed in France as sort of bootlegs too: the resume Janis Elvis one you see forever relisted at about mending wall a high price on ebay is one of these, there is a HMV Best Of Elvis too. These were sold shrinkwrapped, possibly with a Collector Issue note on it from what we remember seing them sold as new on markets. Then there are more modern nasty fakes of resume layout, Beatles Gold Please Please Me that will trap the can everyone achieve essay unwary.

Again, only Money items are faked. Buying on ebay is layout not safe for the Artifact Buyer who doesn't know enough about Vinyl. Msword Resume? Be sure, unless you buy from resume, a dealer who has plenty of Old Vinyl, that your ?100-?500 Bargain when they are ?1000 from others is a Fake. Cette? There are Fakes in resume, any area of Collecting where Money Items are involved. Even in essays on culture and communication, Hifi, you'd think no-one would Fake an Amplifier, but there are Official Collector's Editions of Quad, Marantz McIntosh as well as others possibly, but these are prestige items, but still the buyer may think they are getting a Vintage 1960s one. Learn your Subject. To say all USA records with them are original is wrong, as is saying all ZTSP with handwritten ones are fake. Early 50s RCA promos had handwritten matrixes whist the layout issues had stamped ones. And Communication? USA Columbia pressed vinyl or styrene have been seen with handwritten matrix numbers. Resume Layout? 1970s Northern Soul repros of Lorenzo Manley and Fuller Brothers with stamped matrices but poor sound when compared to the originals shows they are duds, but you won't read that anywhere else.

The Lorenzo one cut lower much duller sounding is always passed off as an essayez cette, original! All well us saying these things, but what is a Matrix Number? It is a number-letter code on resume layout, the vinyl in the gap between the msword end of the music grooves the label edge. The term used for this space that has a spiral groove to activate an autochanger is 'Dead Wax' from the days of resume layout, early 78s, or 'Run Out Area' for thesis on aslyum seekers children other folks. Depending on the record company, eg Parlophone used 7XCE, Stateside used 45KR many others. The Matrix number is noted on the label too, eg Parlophone R5200 which is Beatles 'I Feel Fine' has the Catalog number R 5200 on the right of the label and 7XCE 18171 on the left. Resume Layout? The number stamped in resume, the vinyl is 7XCE 18171-1N. Looking at the record, assuming the layout matrix number is at the bottom, to the left at 9 o'clock position is thesis KT and resume a number, to the right at the 3 o'clock position will be a code from the GRAMOPHLTD letters relating to a number 1-9 0, eg R is 2. Depending on how many copies sold how late your pressing is. Msword Create Resume? This may be G, GA or GOD as we had on resume, one got a Tenner for dissertation it as someone liked that!

On a Decca pressed record, eg London, eg 1962, you'll find a letter from layout, BUCKINGHAM. The American Dream? If a Decca pressing has BH in one line it is the resume layout 18th one, if it has B with H below, ignore the H and it's the and communication 1st. Layout? Matrix numbers are generally unimportant despite the ebay BS hype, but they can be useful for research. Similarly the presence of this doesn't always mean the same either! This serrated 'grip' edge began on UK vinyl in early 1957 because popular cheap record players at the time until the mid 80s were autochangers where you stacked up records played up to 8 records in one go, like a jukebox. On Culture? From Dansettes to flimsy BSR turntables, the layout autochanger was rife. The serrated edge simply stopped the labels slipping spoiling the music. Essays And Communication? For this reason, HMV Elvis unless barely played have the serrated bit worn through to the white base paper from repeated playing. To confuse the resume issue, you find some USA records with serrated edges, not many, but look at USA Capitol pressings from 1968-70s they have this so do a few originally USA-only Northern Soul repros pressed in the UK in the 70s, eg the cette orthographe Tommy Navarro one.

Several other countries adopted the resume serrated edge, from Singapore and Holland to essays on culture and communication, India. Having said that, a UK record with the serrated edge can be looked on as 'official product' made between 1957 and 1984 . The presence of layout, this or not is no clue to on culture, originality as many UK pressings are only layout, recognisable as UK pressings by essayez orthographe other features as often no country is stated. Non UK pressed repros can still copy this text making confusion. is more for LP and resume EP buyers. Some early 50s EPs came without lamination, only to have later issues laminated. Lamination is a thin layer of plastic film attached permanently to essays on culture and communication, usually only the resume front of a record sleeve to protect it. As years age the earliest ones, the essayez cette orthographe glue has gone hard the lamination starts to resume layout, crack peel. Thesis On Aslyum Seekers? By circa 1969 it was common to see unlaminated sleeves by the 70s it was usual. See all the paper tears top right corner from resume layout, careless sticker removal! Some earlier unlaminated UK ones had an essay about, odd varnish type covering, meaning if you remove dry tape marks with meths, off comes the printing too! You may see a Velvett Fogg 1969 Pye LP with no lamination a barcode, we heard of a collector receiving one instead of the resume real one his money paid expected.

This one relates to msword create resume, LPs mainly. Resume? Some LPs had a flap of paper from the front part of the cover bent over to glue to the back part creating a neat join. These are called flipback sleeves. The Decca pressed ones to about 1961 had a curved section cut out, to accomadate the dissertation shape of the resume layout vinyl put in the cover. After that it was just a plain strip.

By 1964-65 Decca pressings could have either a flipback or not as the flap is sealed inside the cover, not outside it randomly done so, neither early or late unless other factors showed otherwise. A 1959 LP with no flipback can be seen to be a 1965 or later issue, in those days some LPs stayed available for thesis children several years. The 1965 press would have a subtly different label and pressing moulding. we've seen as a way to show the BS ebay seller had a rare export copy prices it to the unaware. Again look at a large amount of UK vinyl covering 50s to 70s, and you'll see many EMI Decca pressed records often showing these letters.

All it means is the record could be exported to layout, eg Holland be official product, based on specific copyright terms. Cette Orthographe? The fact it was sold in the UK means it's not a proper Export, only resume layout, those with alternate catalog numbers or different B sides are proper exports. Cliff's Gee Whizz It's You was an msword resume, export issue, as the catalog number shows, but it was also sold in the UK as it made the Top 10, despite not being an resume, official UK release. The easy ones first: Oriole had some solid centres in 1962 as regular stock copies, nothing special. Essayez Orthographe? Oriole Contracts of 1963-64 Beatles on Parlophone exist but these are likely just test pressings only different by being solid centre. Layout? Whether any actualy sold for ?500 asking prices is unlikely. Pye similarly done solid centres occasionally from on aslyum, 1960-69 with the resume earliest Lonnie Donegan Dustman from 1960, again nothing special. EMI started in 1952 with large hole pressings, if the 4 prong centre was introduced mid 1953 continued until 1966. After this solid 4 prong centres are often found if some titles that didn't sell from essays on culture and communication, 1967-69 will be only resume layout, found with solid centres, eg Bobby Goldsboro Too Many People is only on solid centre as far as we know if the dissertation Demo is layout a pronged centre for pullen dissertation jukeboxes.

Big hits like Pink Floyd Emily are commonly found as either solid or pronged centre. Decca is the resume oddity here though. The first UK Decca 45s were the 45000 series export Blue Gold Decca in 1950 into the 900-1000 series London exports, some of which by 1954 had thick tri centres, if the USA type large centre. Tri centres changed from Aug 1954 Thick Tri to Jan 1955 Long Thin Tri to March 1955 standard Tri as on the London pages, if dates are never precise. The Tri centre continued until March 1960 if Round centres started September 1959. Seekers Children? Round centres with 4 prongs are standard Decca style until 1980 when Polygran bought Decca. Every single Decca pressed 45 has a 4 prong centre.

One sided Demos in the 1950s-1960 could be solid centre or tri centre, a mix of resume, both even on the same A+B pair. Essay? But there are Solid Centre Pressings made from 1955 to at least 1964. These are actually reject copies with rough edges trimmed with scissors, a centre hole but no centre shape for Tri or Round. These we've had over the years they are usually poor grade look untidy so even having Gold London Bill Haley Fontane sisters, we didn't like them as they weren't real records. But as RCA pressed Elvis Presley Rolling Stones who have a wide collector base, these rejects can be offered for ?100, again whether they sell is another thing as they look messy. Layout? But if colectors like them, prices rise, but we aren't sure anyone but the tiny few care once they have them there is essay wall no interest.

All UK 45s from 1953 to 1980s have either with small LP-size centre holes, obvious exceptions are 1953 EMI, 1967-73 Polydor early 50s Decca exports, or those 1967 on layout, that have been 'dinked' for a jukebox, as they were made with a solid centre: either roughly by on aslyum a hand tool or by layout a machine. UK record centres: Decca used a triangle centre from 1954 to 1960. EMI used round centres 1953 onwards, after the few early large centre issues (see other pages of thesis seekers, ours). All other labels used a 3-prong or 4-prong round centre that could be removed for jukeboxes or the resume layout early USA record players. There are also the jigsaw removable-replaceable centres too, see another page of essayez cette, ours - '50s Odd Centres'. A UK record with a centre is mistakenly called a 'Tri Centre' by resume some European sellers, unaware Tri means Triangle, rather than just any centre. A restuck centre, often found with Tri Centres is only worth the thesis on aslyum same as a NO CENTRE record (or less if it was messily glued), ie 25%-75% of the layout with-centre copy.

Stuck centres easily come out, ping one with your finger see it fly across the pullen dissertation room! Then put an adaptor in instead. maybe viewed with suspicion, as the general style of centre is the large jukebox middle. Resume? Not so, USA Columbia introduced a failed attempt to compete with RCA's 45rpm with their 33rpm 7, see the Tri Centres page for photos. Some were unfinished or factory-only test items, like the Okeh one, just like you see UK Gold London with solid centres oversized edges as untrimmed. You still see UK sellers saying a USA record is a NOC or 'no original centre', clearly unaware of the history of the 45. The 33rpm Jukebox single from the essays early 60s with or without the thick card mini cover slicks is another example. Resume? You rarely find a Jamaican early 60s issue with the solid centre a small LP size hole, these again are unfinished items.

Slade on seekers children, 1970s Polydor are found as USA pressings with UK numbers solid centres. In the resume layout 1973-74 era with all the problems, contract pressings imported contract pressings are numerous, to msword create, the point some hits on layout, the first press are USA import only, like David Bowie with Rebel Rebel, see elsewhere on our site. The presence of a proper one that is real, not just a printed part of the label design, means it is a genuine item, though it may be a much later pressing. Essays On Culture And Communication? Cutting out the area to make the centre a push-out one appears to resume layout, be very expensive, so bootleggers don't bother. New Zealand pressings used a square centre for some years late 50s early 60s Japan used a shaped tri centre in a similar era. But again, a few modern reissues or retro style releases are appearing with pronged centres. of a proper released record will be of some hifi quality. If it is thesis on aslyum seekers children boomy with little crispness like USA bootlegs of layout, 50s music in on culture and communication, the 70s taken from 78s, that's a big giveaway. Today vinyl repros get the resume layout noise digitally reduced. And Communication? Having heard some, as always the amateur has gone too far with the noise reduction settings lost the ambience from the music, making the music sound very unnatural. Mastering records listening through 6 speakers is resume a fool's game.

A lot of the recent UK 60s Bootleg 45s are mastered much lower than the original 45. eg ^56778 on USA vinyl continued into the 70s, so if your 50s/60s music record has one over approx ^90000 then it's a 70s repro. Orthographe? Some originals were pressed at Monarch in layout, the USA in the 60s the seekers repro/bootlegs were made there too years later. Resume Layout? They are often styrene records, a harder type of vinyl that plays beautifully as regards surface noise on a high grade copy, but it can wear badly. Essay? Early Delta numbers turn up on records 1954-55 and on resume, vinyl. Some reissues, like the Buster Eddie on Class use the old metal stampers with the 1960s Delta, only the label colour difference gives it away. are scans or photocopies, though today's printing techniques can be very advanced. Some recreate the typeface in thesis children, a modern similar font and others add numbers or wording to the original scanned design which helps show the layout reissue from the pullen real. can be a good clue too, as can the resume texture.

An original will always be on a better quality paper with a crisper typeface with no blurring. A very modern repro will still get things wrong: those 60s Beat repros get the Pye pink very wrong as they are just scans as earlier were photocopies*. Msword Resume? Of course, some will use much higher resolution paperwork but even then, you can't match the vinyl even if the labels are 99% perfect. * It appears we must add that the image of the original is layout scanned or photocopied then printed on typical paper ink. Photocopy paper is dust that is create resume heat bonded and is never used raw. Only the source image is derived from a photo, scan or photocopy . The usual way for a UK 45 to have it's label applied is having it pressed into the vinyl when made. This means you cannot pick it away at the edge it does not lay above the layout surface. Certain USA labels always used a stuck-on label, eg Styrene always had a stuck-on label applied with glue.

Later Styrene pressings had ink printed directly onto the blank label are with no paper. A basic rule is a Vinyl pressed record (ignoring acetates) will have a pressed-on label. About Wall? Exceptions include small-run private type labels, eg the early 1965-66 Blue Horizon. Any Decca sporting a stuck-on Demo label is highly likely to be fake, although again some exceptions regarding test pressings allowed these fakes to get accepted. Any record with the centre prongs showing in the label area will be precisely cut as they were cut whilst the vinyl was being pressed. Resume Layout? This gets a little tricky, as hinted already, as you see blank white label or blank record company logo labels with applied sticker labels showing info. Dissertation? This applies to the Beatles Apple Demos, which are fairly glossy blank white labels with an Apple label stuck over.

You can find standard stock copies of a wide range of labels with added Emidisc or similar labels, these are genuine, but the ease of adding such should not make them hugely valuable, more like a nice issue defaced! Another exception as mentioned already, is MGM by resume layout 1967 it became independently pressed in the UK (by EMI still, in plain white sleeves), the orthographe Demos here are plain white with basic details printed on the labels, but oddly a more typical pink MGM demo label stuck over! Confusing is the word. used is a vague one, though see a Sun 45 with a too-modern looking crisp font it's a modern (80s on) repro. Modern Soul repros make little attempt to copy the original label. Oddly a 1928 RCA Victor Blues 78 with it's plain font looks much newer than it is. Overall, experience is resume what gets you picking original from repro.

added to ordinary records, or even old ones added to repro ones! Even old ones soaked from cheapo 45s to add onto a Beatles makes a ?5 record a ?40 one, what a bargain. Dissertation? These silly items are created to make an ordinary item appear special to novices thinking they are getting a Beatles Demo or similar on layout, the cheap. Genuine EMI, Decca or Philips group sample stickers are easy to tell once you've seen some the positioning of the american, them will be apparent after seeing a large amount. No EMI sticker will turn up on a Decca record a 70s EMI one won't be on layout, a mid 60s EMI.

EMI ones were of one sort then a later sort appeared. On Culture And Communication? Does it matter? No. Is it Worth More? Not in layout, The Real World. It's a gummed label like a stamp. And Communication? It can be used to cover a tear or writing explaining the resume odd positions you see them put in. It's easily transferred should add NOTHING to the value in the real world, a thing ebay clearly isn't. The American Dream? Pay ?. for a Beatles Factory Sample and then try to layout, sell it yourself.

A Factory Sample Sticker is essay mending WORTHLESS! It's a Factory Test Sample or a cheap way of resume layout, doing a Promo. Only a clearly different label design maybe in cette orthographe, White with a big A and a Release Date denotes a proper Demo. Layout? An Oriole demo from 1962 will just have a silver A on the centre of mending, one side, unlike earlier later white demos. Resume? A UK Sue 45 with a Black rectangle is NOT a Demo, all the pullen rectangle does is resume layout cover Sue Records USA on 45s 'licensed' from can everyone achieve the american essay, other labels. Layout? If you still think it is, then no-one will mind charging you extra! Some records only exist as Stock Copies with Factory Samples ie TMG 525 is not on msword resume, a RW Demo, adding a sticker does not make ?100 into resume layout, ?200, unless you are gullible.

The big pre mid 1965 Fontana sample stickers actually look ugly the record looks better without it as it's worth no difference unless the HN JP ones are hyped. fake '60s' acetates, faked items using old blank labels from and communication, 1940s 78 acetates stuck onto a Beatles record some fool pays ?150 for resume it. Computer printed demo labels stuck onto msword, regular issues and layout badly cut out around the centre pushout. These fake items created to trap the unaware buyer thinking it's a bargain or something special. The buyers as evidenced by essays on culture ebay feedback shows they aren't Record Buyers, but are after a piece of Memorabilia that is rare but have no knowledge of really what they are buying. The rule here is it's not worth anything more than a standard copy if it basically looks like a standard copy. Resume? Only proper printed Demo or Promo labels are something special, as are Acetates.

An oddity is with some Australian promos: the added-on Demo sticker is stuck on create resume, the label BEFORE pressing. Removal or falling-off results in resume, a dip in the vinyl as the essay mending sticker was originally level with the layout rest of the label, rather than raised as a later added one would be. is another one to look out and communication for. Resume Layout? Any repro made since the pullen 80s will not have the deep 'mono' grooves cut like an original has. Resume Layout? 70s repros still used older machinery so other signs must be checked. is not too helpful, those unplayed 50s Savoy stock look too new but are real early pressings, as do unplayed boxes of UK Blue Beat Wynonie Harris EPs. Similarly a scuffy or scratched disc with a worn label may easily be a repro aged up, but for it to 'sell' only big ?? items would be aged up. of older music often means a 70s press especially if the music is essayez cette playing in Mono, look at your yellow Epic copy of resume layout, Vibrations 'Cause You're Mine' with Stereo added then you'll see it's an early 70s press, not the msword resume 1969 one which had narrower smaller typeface!

Stereo 45s do exist from 1958, but will be easily proved originals from resume, other factors. is of no use to decide if real or not, ignore those tedious ebay BS dealers saying 'original thick vinyl'. Msword Create? A 1949 USA RCA 45 is on thin vinyl as is a 1956 one. A UK 1957 RCA is on thicker vinyl. Layout? A 1966 Blue Beat is on the thickest heavy vinyl you will find, they are Orlake pressings. Essays On Culture And Communication? A 1958 HMV LP is a strong heavy piece of vinyl, yet some 1972-3 UK RCA LPs are so thin like a flexi. A thick heavy record with a silvery aluminium core seen through the centre is an Acetate can be genuine factory items with rare tracks, or especially in resume layout, the early days of the Northern Soul scene, just a privately cut track for DJ use of essay about mending, no real value as a genuine studio acetate can have. Be aware a 60s track with felt tip pen writing is not an old one! Handwritten biro, or ink on resume, the earlier ones are likely to can everyone achieve dream, be genuine. There are Fake Acetates of Rare Tracks we see occasionally on ebay.

If it has no proper label, a 1960s track with felt tip details or just is too high grade, be Very Suspicious of it. Acetates last for resume layout decades, as you'd not see any if they didn''t, making a nonsense of the fragile not long lasting comments. You occasionally see 'Big Money' USA Northern Soul tracks cut back to back on on aslyum seekers children, one acetate. These are items a DJ made himself in layout, the 1970s just to be able to msword, play it and as it's 100% unofficial as well as the sound quality usually being awful, they are not worth more than ?10 as curios. Of course there are Genuine Acetates of 60s Soul, but as with any acetate, there are clues.

These soul acetates can be crudely made, or nicely typed up on EMIDISC labels as one PP Arnold Everything's one was with a totally unrelated B side. One 'expert' was happy to sell it giving the idea by association with other items that it was a 1960s original studio made one a buyer was happy to pay silly money, nearly ?150 for an unofficial item, not a fake was a 1970s item, but little different from a home tape. This same 'expert' had an extremely dodgy Beatles Faked Demo that he was quite indignant in us questioning him on, as some other 'expert' had confirmed it was 'real' so how dare we question. Buyer beware is all you can say to that, keep it happily for 20 years then find out the truth. There are quite a lot of resume layout, Unissued Motown tracks turning up with 'Recoat' on the labels, these were rejected official items meant for on aslyum children reuse, but with so much Unissued Motown on CD now vinyl, these tracks no doubt will be faked up similarly. For the risk of getting silly, it can be a clue, but be aware how many smokers there were until recent years. A smoky smelling record may not be that old, but to tell if Sleeves are old, if they smell musty that is resume layout a clue of age, but not a sure one. If the vinyl has an obvious new plastic smell or a repro sleeve lacks crispness in the printing but gives you a paper cut it is likely a modern one. Orthographe? Repro 7 sleeves have been around years now can look old at resume a glance, but the blurry print or modern typeface added to recreate them gives it away.

They often come apart as the seams are poorly glued. was a UK Billy Fury Export EP, the 'Play It Cool' one. The catalog number of both as RC shows is msword create resume identical, yet the cover is the resume layout clear steep difference in value. Msword Create Resume? Now a seller had a repro cover and offered the standard record inside it. The sleeve remember was a repro of no collector value. Yet excited (foolish) ebayers paid ?50 for it? Eh? Duh more like. ?10 the record ?40 for a repro sleeve. Keeps us in the know smiling! Special AKA Gangsters was a huge hit rightly so. Resume? The majority are on dissertation, paper labels worth no more than ?6, the resume layout only rarity is the handstamped sleeve, which has been repro'd and also the thesis on aslyum silver ink later 1980 press label for completists.

The RC TT1-3 being rare is nonsense, the layout majority have this, so a ?6 record in reality. The first pressings are by Rough Trade via CBS and you'll find EMI Pye contract pressings too as demand was high. Now here's the thing: Pye vinyl was black in normal light, but from 1972-1980ish some held up to a light it shines varied shades of red. Can Everyone Dream? Hold it up to the light black vinyl becomes red. Layout? BFD. So the silly seller who backlit his to cette orthographe, make the resume pic look fully red will have a buyer expecting it to look red in daylight, as red vinyl suggests. In reality, the Pye contract is more common than the EMI one seller tried a similar game for months to essays, get ?20 for resume layout his to no avail. OK, we're having a laugh here apparently, all MP3s can be faked to oblivion as can any home made MP3 from the original vinyl. A MP3 looks like nothing, as nothing it is, it is virtual if your hard drive, iPod or dongle with the track on dies, so does the achieve essay download! How silly you were not to keep 25 backups! But there really are fake MP3 downloads hiding as zip files with nasty .exe viruses in them on these dodgy peer to resume, peer sites, so all here is not in vain.

An area of Collecting where FAKE is Exceedingly likely to the point of Guaranteed Fake. One seller on ebay we noticed with 12 records with many name artists having signed the pullen dissertation vinyl! Bullshit! No way would the owner carry round 12 records genuinely to a gig then get the layout artist or group to pullen, sign the resume layout item so steadily! Bullshit 2! Those Silver pens are only good for a short time before the point clogs take a while to start if at all. No way would the pen be ready working perfectly each time in a rushed situation. Look at their ended items. 60+ items all signed very similarly. It would take years in reality, or 20 minutes to on culture and communication, fake.

There are so many gullible buyers thinking at resume a bargain price it'll do. You've been conned! You see Pawn Stars on the History Channel, see how Rick buys, he's sharp like us. Msword? They either pay no extra for the signature or need full COA proof. The experts they pull in resume layout, have much knowledge will have pictures of original signatures take more than 20 seconds screen time to confirm, if one they've stopped using now.

If you want to buy Signed Items, be very careful even COA provenance can be faked so easily. Ebay clearly don't care and allow this to go on, as it's not illegal like selling DVD copies, so you'll actually find there is no way to report these items. Buyer beware. Autographs are a strange market, they need to be signed clearly display well by Framing Matting, but then the msword resume Ink Fades in daylight so the resume layout value is gone. are everywhere and they are constantly repressing them, now in better vinyl quality occasionally adding more titles, the create resume latest batch are Hot USA RB 45s from around 1958. The Reggae ones were first around over resume layout 12 years ago in the London Collector shops. Seeing a wall full of 'Rare Originals' for the first time sure gets you going! Most are openly sold as repros for ?6-8 so no problem really for buyers.

They are all well worth buying sound good, if a little lacking in punch compared to msword create resume, the originals. Resume Layout? We've had the first lot to keep the on culture music digitally from the vinyl if we'd not had the original copy. The UK pressed ones lack the serrated edge, some have large or small centres, but the matrix numbers are at least obvious with the song titles or catalog number etched, not the layout machine stamped matrix number of essay, old. with the layout old cliche about essays on culture, being given some records not knowing much about them, but without actually saying they are 'new' or 'repro' as they apparently don't know. But sadly the Inexperienced buyer sees the Dollar signs (that was originated in resume, a Tom Jerry 1940s cartoon) and resume believing they are getting a huge bargain keep bidding. Or more likely the seller is resume layout fake-bidding up their own items.

The more bidders the resume item gets, the 'sheep' effect comes in, ie they think it's right so it must be! Ending up paying ?30 or more for the repro is the resume layout outcome. It's up to the buyer to essayez, understand what they are buying watch out.

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How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for layout over 20 years. She specializes in dissertation helping people write essays faster and easier. Evaluation essays are just like reviews. They judge whether something is good or bad, better or worse than something comparable. We are familiar with this sort of layout, writing if we've read book, movie, restaurant, or product reviews. Evaluation papers can be serious or funny, earnest or sarcastic. We all love to read the pullen, review of a really bad movie or restaurant experience. If you like to write satire, this can be a great opportunity to display your humor. Chances are you will have a great time, and so will your reader. Your topic can be something you've experienced once or many times.

Keep in resume mind that you will write a better paper if you: Have a strong opinion—positive or negative—about this topic. Choose something you've experienced recently or that you can review again before you write your paper. Know a lot about this type of experience. Use the following list of pullen dissertation, categories to brainstorm ideas for what you might want to evaluate. Finding Criteria for Evaluation Essays.

To turn your opinion into resume layout an evaluation, you will need to use criteria to dissertation, judge your subject. What are criteria? Criteria are the parts of your topic that you will judge as good or bad, better or worse than something else. How can you find criteria? Criteria are the parts of the thing you are evaluating. Here are some examples of criteria: movie criteria : plot, actors, scenery, score, directing, chemistry between actors, humor. restaurant criteria: service, atmosphere, food quality, taste, value, price. website criteria: ease of navigation, design, visuals, writing, content. Finding the best criteria for your evaluation: In order to resume, do this kind of can everyone the american dream, writing well, you need to resume, determine what sort of a topic you are evaluating. If it is can everyone the american dream essay a movie, then what genre is it: horror, romance, drama, etc.?

Then you need to decide what would make an excellent movie in that genre in resume layout your opinion. Essayez. For example, you may decide that a good romantic comedy has to have three things: humor, surprising plot twists, and actors you enjoy getting to know. Next, you will evaluate the movie you have chosen to layout, see how well it matches those criteria, giving specific examples of how it does or does not fulfill your expectations of an excellent romantic comedy. In order to evaluate something, you need to compare it with the pullen, best example of layout, that particular thing. So, to help you develop your topic into an essay, there are two important questions to ask when you are choosing your topic to pullen, evaluate: First question: What category of a thing is it? Second question: What is the ideal example of something in that category? What category is resume layout it? For the best evaluation essay, you want to compare your topic with things that are very similar, so try to narrow the category as much as possible. To get there, you want to keep on asking the question, What kind is dissertation it? What category does McDonald's fit into?

Answer to first question : Restaurant. (What kind of restaurant?) Fast food restaurant. (Better, but what kind of fast food?) Hamburger-serving fast food restaurant. (This is what you want!) So if you were evaluating McDonald's, you would want to compare it to layout, other fast food restaurants that mostly serve hamburgers. Now the second question: What is the ideal example of something in about wall that category? What makes that example better than others? Thinking about what you consider to be the very best example of resume layout, something in the category of what you are reviewing can help you decide what criteria you will use, and essayez also what judgement you can make. For example, here is a list of criteria my students have come up with for an ideal burger fast food restaurant: looks clean serves food fast makes it easy to resume layout, order has great fries has options on the menu offers large drinks with free refills serves juicy burgers with lots of grease doesn't cost a lot of money. No two people will come up with exactly the same list, but most restaurant reviews look at essays on culture and communication the following criteria: Answer to second question: A great fast food burger joint offers great service, atmosphere, and food at layout a fair cost. Now you know what your paper is on aslyum children going to layout, be about on culture, how close McDonald's comes to this ideal.

Is This an Effective Advertisement? Using the layout, list of criteria above, we can make a very fast outline for an essay about an imaginary fast food hamburger restaurant called Bob's Burgers: Thesis Statement : While you may have to wait a while to get your meal at Bob's Burgers, that is because everyone finds the meal is worth the wait; Bob's Burgers offers not only resume, great service, but a fun atmosphere for eating with friends or family, terrific food, and a good value for the price. Topic sentence for resume paragraph 1: Service : Bobs Burgers offers great service that makes you feel at home. Food served quickly Easy to order Friendly Not pushy They get the order correct. Topic sentence for paragraph 2: Atmosphere : Walking into Bob's, you know you will enjoy eating there. Looks clean Attractive colors Interesting pictures or other decorations Comfortable tables and chairs. Topic sentence for paragraph 3: Food: Most importantly, Bob's burgers are the best in town. Juicy burgers with lots of grease Many choices for toppings, including grilled onions, mushrooms, and peppers Small or large burgers Have great fries One downside: No options for those who don't like burgers. Topic sentence for paragraph 4: Value : While Bob's doesn't have the cheapest meals, they do offer a good value for the price.

Quality ingredients Burgers and fries fill you up Toppings on burgers are free Large drinks with free refills. Using this quick outline, most of can everyone achieve essay, you could probably write your own essay on Bob's or another fast food hamburger joint pretty easily. Comparison/Contrast: Evaluate your subject by comparing it to one of the best of resume, that genre (use something everyone would know to and communication, save time). You will not do an resume, extended comparison, but just use the comparison as a lead-off into your own judgment. Expectations Unfulfilled: This is especially easy to do for this essay type. Create. Use the resume, intro to describe what you were anticipating before seeing the dissertation, subject, then describe how the subject was either better or worse than you expected. Resume. Frame : Use a description of the subject to essayez cette, frame the essay. That way you get right into the action. Then break off half-way through to keep your reader in suspense. Give your evaluation and then conclude with the end of your frame.

Define Genre and resume Compare: In this essay, you would start out by describing the typical expectations of whatever subject you have (ex: rock album, romantic movie, baseball game, jazz club). After describing the essayez cette, “typical,” you will then tell how your subject either exemplifies the genre or deviates from the norm. Resume. Probably this type of organization is best used for a satire or for a subject that deliberately tries to break out of the normal expectations of that genre. Analysis by Criteria: In this type of paper, you introduce the subject, tell why you are evaluating it, what the competition is, and how you gathered your data. Then you order your criteria chronologically, spatially, or in order of importance. Chronological Order : You might use this for all or part of your paper. It means telling what happened in the order it happened. This is cette orthographe particularly useful for resume layout a performance or restaurant review.

Causal Analysis: This measures the essays, effect on the audience. How does this subject cause a certain effect? Analysis Focused on the Visual: This organization plan works well for analyzing works of art and pictures. The analysis focuses on composition, arrangement, focus, foreground and background, symbols, cultural references, and key features of that visual genre. It also notices the tools of the resume layout, artist: color, shape, texture, pattern, and media. Cette Orthographe. This paper analyzes these details in order to explain how they are related to resume layout, the cultural and dissertation historical context of the work of art and then tells how they relate to the overall meaning of the piece. Be sure to evaluate if and why this piece is effective or ineffective.

Analysis Focused on the Social Context or the Story : This type of resume, evaluation takes an essayez cette, image and analyzes how it is resume layout effective for a particular point. Usually, the image is dissertation about a controversial or emotionally charged cultural or historical event. Resume. Your analysis can describe how this image either demonstrates or contributes to the emotion or debate surrounding the event. It may be that the image is ironic or misleading. The only dream essay, problem with our example above is layout that it is essays on culture and communication so easy to write, and so it might seem rather trite and unoriginal. How can you make your essay stand out? Describe vividly, using interesting verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Make the layout, reader feel that they have been to the restaurant with you. Essay About Mending. Use the introduction and conclusion to entice the reader. Introduction and resume layout Conclusion Ideas.

Use a conversation about the food. Start with your expectations and end with your actual experience (telling whether it met expectations or overturned them). Talk about can everyone achieve the american dream, popularity or history of the restaurant. Use statistics of people eating fast food more. Discuss the controversy about fast food and obesity and health.

See the resume, chart below for more ideas. How to Connect Introduction and Conclusion. 1. Present the Subject in an Interesting Way. Give the right amount of can everyone achieve, detail : Be sure to explain clearly what it is and provide enough information for the reader to agree with your judgment. Layout. Sometimes movie reviews leave the reader in suspense as to the outcome of the story. You will have to mending wall, decide what you want to tell.

Help readers agree with your evaluation : One reason people like reviews is because they help them decide whether they would like that subject themselves, so make sure to give your reader enough details to decide if they agree. Write a review rather than a summary: Make sure that the resume, summary of the subject is no more than a third of your paper. Dream Essay. The main part of your paper is resume layout supposed to be the evaluation, not the summary. It is possible to about mending wall, do the summary separately and then do the evaluation, or you can summarize as part of your evaluation. Make sure what you are evaluating is layout clear: It is often effective to use an introduction which describes the subject or gets the reader involved in the action quickly. 2. Make a Clear, Authoritative Judgment (2/3 of paper) Thesis sentence should tell exactly what you think. You might want to foreshadow your body by including the main reasons for essay about wall your evaluation in that thesis sentence. (Ex: The movie XXX is perfect for a college student's study break because of the hilarious comedy, intense action, and fantastic visual effects.) Define the audience you are addressing and resume the genre of the subject (in the above example, the thesis, audience is layout college students and on aslyum children the genre is action comedy). Create a three-column-log to help you make notes for your paper. Separate your notes into three columns for criteria, evidence, and judgment.

Pick at least three criteria to talk about in your essay. Layout. For example, for a mystery play, it could be three of the following: plot, setting, costumes, acting of main characters, acting of minor characters, the pace of the action, or the unveiling of the mystery. Be opinionated! Passionate reviews are always more interesting to read. Use vivid nouns and engaging verbs. Have a strong judgment about how this subject is on aslyum seekers either better or worse than similar subjects. Your judgment can be mixed.

For example, you might say the concert on the mall was a good mix of bands and layout that the new songs from the main act were energetically played, but that the sound equipment was poorly set up and tended to make it hard to hear the create resume, singers. Order the body paragraphs from least to most important. Back up your opinions with concrete examples and convincing evidence. 3. Argue for Your Judgment. As you state each of your judgments, you need to give reasons to layout, back them up that are specific, interesting, and convincing. For evidence, describe the subject, quote, use personal anecdotes, or compare and contrast with a similar subject. In some cases it is effective to counter-argue, if you disagree with what most people think.

For example, if your subject is very popular and you think it is terrible, you may want to state what most people think and tell why you disagree. This exercise is essays on culture and communication intended to help you prepare to write your paper. As you answer these questions, you will generate ideas that you can use for your paper. What is the topic (subject) you are going to evaluate? Do a short description of it in a list or paragraph. What category is your topic? Be as specific and narrow as possible.

Who might be interested in this? This is your audience for the paper. What does this audience already know? What do they want or expect from this thing? (This can help you develop criteria) What criteria can you use for resume layout evaluating your topic? (Think of what is most important, or what can be either good or bad, or what parts there are of your topic) What did you expect before you experienced your topic? How did your experience either fulfill or reverse your expectations? In your evaluation of your topic, what is good? In your evaluation of your topic, what is not as good? What is the best example of something in your topic? (Or what other things can you use to compare your topic with?).

How does your topic compare to the best of create, this sort of resume layout, thing? If I had to put my evaluation in a single sentence, I would say: Look at “How to orthographe, Write and Evaluation Essay” Organization Strategies. Resume Layout. Which of these will you use? Explain how you will use it. Thesis Children. Introduction/Conclusion ideas: Which of these will work best for you? frame story, scenario, expectations unfulfilled, conversation, vivid scene, statistics and evidence, describe social context or historical period, describe popular trend for the subject, define the genre, personal story, quote from someone (often someone who disagrees with you), analogy, compare and contrast. Resume Layout. How will you use this introduction and essay about wall conclusion idea in your essay? Now write a brief outline of your paper (see hamburger example above). Most of us can tackle a writing project more easily after talking about our ideas. Instructors may have you work in groups to talk out your ideas.

I've even had some students turn on their webcam and answer these questions while videotaping themselves! If your instructor doesn't have you work in resume a group, you can get together with some friends to answer the following questions and take notes to pullen dissertation, help you get ideas for your paper. Take turns in your group. The main goal is to resume, help one another prepare to write. Pay special attention to helping each other describe their subject vividly and make their evaluation clear and precise. Also, look for good ways to organize papers. Tell your subject to your group.

Let the group respond and tell you what they know about essayez, it or what they would expect. You write down their answers. Explain your subject. Have your group ask questions (someone else can record for resume you if you want). Pullen. Explain your criteria for judging it (#5 in resume pre-writing).

Have the group respond. Do these seem like the best criteria? Any other suggestions? Tell your group your one-sentence evaluation (this is your thesis). Thesis Seekers. Get suggestions for how to make is more effective. Look at layout the different “Organization Suggestions” on the “Basic Features of an Evaluation Paper.” What type of organization would work best for create resume this paper? Try to write a simple outline. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and resume layout Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22.

Essay Form and Structure: How to Write an Essay. by Evi Lopez 10. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37.

100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. Thank you for this its really helped with my college English class. thank you gave a better explanation that my professor. Thanks! This is helpful. Virginia Kearney 8 months ago from United States. That is an interesting idea Lili. I've just created a video game character, then I made 3 seperate animations that shows her personality using only visuals, and essays now I have it evaluate it.

I've never written an resume, evaluation before but this helped get me started, wish me luck! Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. Hi Janelle! I have lots of information on topic ideas and how to write different types of can everyone dream, Freshman English essays. I wrote these over my 24 years of resume layout, teaching and publish them here to about mending, help other instructors, especially those who are just starting out. Many students find my essays on their own but I welcome instructors using links to my material, but please do not post the information to your own website or print out my information. Thank you for this. Resume. I am teaching a Freshman Comp class in college, and I'll use some of this material to teach an evaluation essay of some kind. I will be writing my essay on the gender inequality. I am trying to evaluate a hotel.

Evaluating a TED talks presentation/speech. Lily Galindo 2 years ago. Reviewing a technological device - the wall, Kindle Keyboard 3G. :) askformore lm 2 years ago. Thank you for a very interesting and useful hub. Thumbs up! Arif 4 years ago from resume layout Bangladesh.

wow!! amazing really. I should develop my hub just like you :) FilipinoHeart 4 years ago. Thank you for create resume this very accessible and useful information. Resume. Cheers! :) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.

Thanks DVKR--I think this is one of the easier essays to write because we are all familiar with the review. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and dissertation company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Layout. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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