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mirc auto resume dcc The following commands are mostly unique to mIRC, though some are only modifications or extensions of standard IRC commands. /ajinvite [on | off] Turns auto-join on art history paper, invite on or off. /alias [filename] aliasname command Adds, removes, replaces aliases; it is limited to single line aliases and green environment, will not affect multiple line definitions. /alias /moo /me moos! This will replace the art history, first matching alias with the reed essay, new command. To remove an existing aliases: To add an alias to a specific alias file, you would use: /alias moo.txt /moo /me moos!

If you don't specify a filename, it defaults to using the first filename in which the paper, alias exists, or if it doesn't exist then it uses the first loaded aliases file. This and essay sorrento, the /ame command send the paper, specified message or action to all open channel windows. Changes your alternate nickname. Can be used in the on CONNECT event or Perform section to delay or prevent autojoining of channels. Where -n = join now, -s = skip autojoin, -dN = delay autojoin for do phd get published, N seconds. Note: This also affects the rejoining of art history paper open channel windows during a reconnect. /background [-abemsgdluhcfnrtpx] [window] [filename] Changes the dissertation, background picture setting for a window.

This can also be changed via a windows System Menu. -a = active window. -m = main mIRC window. -s = status window. -g = finger window. -d = single message window. -e = set as default. -cfnrtp = center, fill, normal, stretch, tile, photo. -u = toolbar buttons. You can right-click in art history, the toolbar/switchbar to pop up a menu for changing these settings. Toolbar buttons can use RGB Color 255,0,255 for transparency, the BMP must be of the same form as that in mIRC resources.

It should be a 16 or 256 color BMP. -x = no background picture. Note: The window name should only be specified if none of the essay sorrento, window switches are specified. The filename does not need to be specified if you are only art history changing the display method. /ban [-kruN] [#channel] nickname|address [type] Bans someone from the on aslyum, current channel using their address. To do this, it first does a /userhost on art history, the user, which gives it the user's address, and then it does a /mode # +b user address.

If you specify the -k switch, mIRC performs a ban/kick combination on the nickname. If you specify the -uN switch, mIRC pauses N seconds before removing the ban. If you specify the -r switch, /ban removes the ban of the specified type for hotel, that nickname, eg. Art History Paper? /ban -r nick 2. If you do not specify a ban type, then mIRC uses the whole nick!*user@host to environment essay do the ban. If you are banning an IP address then a wild card replaces the last number of the IP address. If you are on paper, the channel then the #channel specification is essay hotel not necessary. If you specify a wildcard address it is used as-is, if you specify a full address then the type mask is art history applied to can everyone achieve dream it.

For a list of paper ban types see the $mask identifier. Note: This command uses the green environment, IAL maintained by mIRC. Beeps a number of art history paper times with a delay. Pops up the achieve the american dream essay, channel central window for the channel window you're currently in. You can also specify a #channel name to paper open the channel central for thesis, a channel you've already joined but which isn't the paper, active window.

/clear [-sghlc] [windowname] Clears the buffer of the current window. Thesis? If you specify a window name, that window's buffer will be cleared. The -s switch clears the status window. The -g switch clears the art history, finger window. The -l switch clears the side-listbox in a custom window. The -c switch clears the click history in a picture window. The -h switch clears the editbox command history for a window.

Clears the buffers of the specified windows, where s = status, n = channel, q = query, m = message window, t = chat, g = finger, u = custom, a = all windows on all connections. If no switches are specified all windows are cleared. Copies the specified text to the clipboard. Hotel? The -a switch makes it append the text to any existing text in the clipboard. The -n switch appends a $crlf to the text. /close [-icfgms@] [nick1] . [nickN]

Closes all windows of the specified type and paper, the specified nicknames. Sorrento? If no nicknames are given, all windows of the specified type are closed. The type of window is denoted by c for chat, f for fserve, g for art history, get, i for children, inactive dcc windows, m for message (query), s for send, and @ for art history paper, custom windows. You can specify the Nth window for -cfgs by appending a number, eg. /close -s4 nick, would close the 4th open dcc send to nick. You can also use a wildcard as the window name and all matching windows will be closed. Allows you to help service juridique change the color settings for art history paper, items in the Colors dialog.

The -l switch reloads the color settings from the mirc.ini file. The -r switch resets the Nth color in the 16 color palette to its default RGB value, with /color -r N. To change the essay hotel, color of the art history, Nth color in the 16 color palette to reed essay a new value, you can use /color index rgb To change the art history, color of a text item in the color dialog, you can specify the name of the hotel sorrento, item, eg. Normal text, along with a new palette index. The -s switch changes the active scheme, with /color -s scheme name /copy -ao filename filename Copies a file to art history another filename or directory. You can also use wildcards for seekers children, the source filename, and a directory name for the destination. The -o switch overwrites a file if it exists. The -a switch appends the first file to the second one. /creq [+m|-m] [ask | auto | ignore] This is the art history, command line equivalent of setting the DCC Chat request radio buttons in the dcc options dialog (see /sreq below).

The +m|-m switch turns the minimize setting on|off. /ctcpreply nick ctcp [message] Sends a reply to a ctcp query. /ctcpreply goat HELP no help available. /debug [-cinpt] [N] [on | off | @window | filename] [identifier] Outputs raw server messages, both incoming and outgoing, to a debug.log file, or a custom @window. /debug -n @moo, opens a custom @window minimized. /debug -c off, turns off debugging and can everyone achieve, closes the art history paper, associated custom @window. /debug -pt, wraps or timestamps messages. /debug N @moo, uses color N for messages. The -i switch calls the specified identifier before a debug line is logged.

The return value of the identifier is hotel used as the debug line. The $debug identifier returns the art history paper, name of debug file or @window. Note: /debug works independently for each server connection. /describe nick|channel message Sends an can everyone the american dream essay action to the specified nickname or channel, the same as the /me command, except that /me is used while in paper, a query or channel window so you don't need to specify the target when using it. Forces a disconnect from a server. This is can everyone achieve the american dream essay different from the /quit command which sends a quit message to art history the server and waits for the server to disconnect you. This allows you to call routines in a DLL designed to work with mIRC. /dns [-ch] [nick|address] Resolves an address.

If mIRC sees a . in the name you specify it assumes it's an address and tries to resolve it. Otherwise it assumes it's a nickname and performs a /userhost to find the achieve the american essay, user's address and then resolves it. If you specify an IP address, it looks up the host name. You can queue multiple /dns requests, and you can view the art history paper, current queue by using /dns with no parameters. The -c switch clears all currently queued DNS requests, except for the one currently in progress. The -h switch forces /dns to treat the help, parameter as a hostname. Note: Due to way the DNS lookup works, any DNS related functions currently in art history paper, progress eg. connecting to juridique a server, must be resolved before subsequent requests. This means that if a prior DNS is having problems resolving, subsequent DNS requests have to wait until it times out before they can be resolved.

Manipulates the single message window. Enables or disables the art history paper, sounds in the Sounds dialog. /echo [color] [-cdeghiNtsaqlbfnmr] [color name] [#channel|[=]nick] text Prints text in the specified window using the specified color (0 to 15). /echo 3 #mIRC Testing. would print Testing in the color green in channel window #mIRC, assuming it's already open. If a channel/nickname isn't specified, the -s switch echoes to the status window, the get published, -d switch echoes to art history the single message window, and the -a switch echoes to the currently active window.

The -e switch encloses the david reed, line in line separators. The -iN switch indents the paper, wrapped line by N characters. The -h switch forces lines to hard-wrap so resizing the do phd get published, window doesn't change the line. The -t switch prefixes the line with a timestamp if global time stamping is on paper, or timestamping is on for that window. The -q switch makes it not display the thesis on aslyum seekers children, text if called from an alias using the paper, . prefix. The -l switch makes it apply the highlight settings to the line that's displayed. The -bf switches make it apply the beep/flash settings in the window it is echoing to.

The -n switch prevents the echo from highlighting the window switchbar icon. The -m switch indicates that the line should be treated as a user message, not an event. The -g switch prevents the david, line from being logged to paper the log file. The -r switch applies the strip settings in do phd thesis, the messages dialog. The -c switch uses the specified color name from the paper, colors dialog. Note: This text is only displayed in your own window, it isn't sent to the server, no one else can see it. /editbox [-safnopbNeN] [window] text Fills the david essay, editbox of the art history paper, current window with the specified text. The -s switch specifies the Status window. The -a switch specifies the Active window.

To specify a dcc chat window, prefix the david essay, nickname with an = equal sign. The -f switch sets the focus to art history the editbox. The -p switch indicates that a space should be appended to text. The -n switch fills the editbox and presses the enter key in the editbox. The -o switch applies the sorrento, command to art history the second editbox in a channel window. The -bNeN switches set the start and sorrento, end of the paper, selection in the editbox.

Changes the email address in seekers, the Connect dialog. Close down mIRC and art history, exit. The -n switch disables the exit confirmation dialog. The -r switch restarts mIRC. /filter [-asdfkwxnpriocteubglLz] [n-n2] [c s] infile | dialog id outfile | dialog id | alias [alias] matchtext This command scans lines of text in a window or file and if any of them contain matchtext, they are written out to another window or file which you can then use. The infile can be a filename or a window name (custom or normal). The outfile can be a filename or a custom window name. Dream? You should specify the -fw switches if the names are ambiguous eg.

/filter -ff in.txt out.txt *mirc* This indicates that both are filenames, and: /filter -wf #in.txt #out.txt *help* indicates that the first is actually a window name, and the second is a filename. The -a switch sorts filtered lines by calling the optional [alias] . The alias is passed two lines in $1 and $2, it must compare these and return -1, 0, or 1 to indicate relative sort order of these lines to each other. The -x switch excludes matching lines. The -n switch prefixes lines with a line number. The -s switch makes the art history paper, status window the infile. The -d switch makes the single message window the infile. The -p switch wraps the text output in a custom window.

The -r switch specifies the range of lines n to n2 for filtering. The -b switch strips BURK codes when matching text. The -g switch indicates that matchtext is a regular expression. The -z switch retains line colors when filtering between custom windows. The -k switch indicates that you have specified an alias as the the american, output instead of a window name. The alias will be called with the paper, result of dissertation help service each filtered line. The -i switch indicates that you have provided a [dialog id] custom dialog control as the input. The -o switch indicates that you have provided a [dialog id] custom dialog control as the output.

The -c switch clears the output window/file before writing to it. The -t switch sorts the output based on [c s], column C using character S as the columns separator. The -e specifies a descending sort, and -u a numeric sort. The -l switch filters from the art history, side-listbox in the first window, and -L filters to the side-listbox in the second window. You can filter blank lines by specifying $crlf for the matchtext. This command also fills the service juridique, $filtered identifier with the number of matches found, if any. Note: If the input and output are the art history paper, same window/file, mIRC will process the request correctly. This searches active window for the specified text (same as Control+F). /flash [-bNwNrN] [window] text This flashes the green essay, specified mIRC window/icon with text in the titlebar but only if mIRC is not the active application. The -bN switch makes mIRC beep N times.

The -wN switch makes mIRC play the Flash sound specified in paper, the Event Beeps section N times. The -rN switch makes mIRC repeat the the american essay, flash N times. In all cases, if N is not specified the flash/sound continues indefinitely. Flushes the art history, specified INI file to the hard disk. Thesis Get Published? INI files are cached in memory, so you may want to do this to make sure that your INI is updated properly. /font [-asgbdz|window] fontsize fontname This allows you to change the font for the current window. If no parameters are specified, the font dialog pops up, otherwise the specified parameters are used.

You can make the font bold by paper using the -b switch. The -a switch applies the setting to the american the active window, -s to the status window, and -g to the finger window. The -d switch makes the font the default for that type of window, eg. for all channels, or all chats. The -z switch clears all font settings and sets all windows to art history the specified font. Hotel Sorrento? If no font is specified, all windows are set to default font settings. Note: If you use a negative number for the font size, it will match the size of paper fonts in do phd thesis, the font dialog. Changes the full name in the connect dialog. Brings up the section in paper, the mIRC help file which matches the achieve the american essay, specified keyword. /hop [-cn] [#channel] [message] Parts the current channel and joins a new one.

If no new channel is paper specified, it parts and hotel, rejoins the current channel without closing the window. The -c switch cycles the specified channel by parting and rejoining it. The -n switch minimizes the channel window. This is a standard IRC command for joining a channel. The -i switch makes you join the channel to which you were last invited. The -n and -x switches minimize/maximize the channel window when you join it. Prints the line separator selected in art history paper, the Options dialog in the specified window. Retrieves the servers to which your current server is linked. The -n and -x switches minimize/maximize the window when it opens.

Loads the specified alias, popup, or script. /load -a aliases.ini loads an aliases file. /load -ps status.ini loads a status window popup. /load -pc status.ini loads a channel popup. /load -pq status.ini loads a query popup.

/load -pn status.ini loads a nickname list popup. /load -pm status.ini loads a menubar popup. /load -ru users.ini loads a users file. /load -rv vars.ini loads a variables file. /load -rs script.ini loads a scripts file. If you try to david load a file that is already loaded, it's contents are updated and it's position in art history paper, the alias/script processing order is maintained. You can also use the /reload command with the same parameters to reload a file without triggering the on start/load events in the script being loaded.

If you specify the N with /load -rsN, this loads/reloads the script into the Nth position in the script list. Note: You can only load one section at a time. /loadbuf [lines] [-apirsglecNnomttopic] window | dialog id filename Loads the specified number of lines from the end of the file of filename into the specified window. /loadbuf 20 @test info.txt. This loads the last 20 lines of info.txt into custom window @test. /loadbuf 10-40 @test info.txt. This loads lines 10 to 40 of on aslyum children info.txt into custom window @test. The -a switch loads the text into art history paper, the active window. The -p switch forces lines of text to wrap when added to the window. The -i switch makes sure that lines are indented if they wrap.

The -r switch clears the contents of the output window. The -s and -g switches apply the command to help service the status and finger windows respectively. The -l switch applies the command to the side-listbox in art history paper, a custom window. The -e switch evaluates variables and identifiers in the line being read. The -cN switch specifies the default color for lines. The -n switch logs the loaded text to a log file, if logging is enabled for that window.

The -m switch indicates that the text is already timestamped. The -o switch indicates that you have specified [dialog id] parameters instead of a window name in order to load text into on aslyum children, a custom dialog control. The -t switch loads the text under the [topic] section in an INI or plain text file. /localinfo -uh [host ip] Looks up and sets your local info settings. The -u switch performs a /userhost lookup, the -h switch does a normal lookup. Art History? If you wish, you can also set the local info manually by thesis get published specifying the host and ip values. Turns logging on art history, and off for a window, if you specify a filename the logs file dialog is the american essay not popped up. Allows you to arrange icons, and cascade/tile windows. Creates the art history, specified directory.

Changes your main nickname. Changes your nickname. Performs no operation, parameters are evaluated as with a normal command. /omsg [#channel] message This and the /onotice command sends the specified message to all channel ops on a channel.

You must be a channel operator to use these commands. If the #channel isn't specified, then the current channel is used. Parts all of the channels you are currently on. On certain IRC Servers, you can also specify a message. If turned on, tries to speed up dcc sends by sending packets ahead of green essay acks. Enables or disables the Perform form section. /play [-escpbn q# m# f# rl# t#] [channel/nick/stop] filename [delay] This plays a text file to a user or a channel. Performs a delayed op on a nickname. The purpose of this command is to prevent a channel window filling up with op mode changes whenever several users have the same nickname in their auto-op section.

mIRC will pause around delay seconds before performing the op. If delay is zero, it does an immediate op. Before performing the op it checks if the art history, user is already opped. If you do not specify the #channel, the current channel is assumed. /pvoice delay [#channel] nickname Works the same way as the /pop command except that voices a user. This and the /qme command send the specified message or action to all open query windows. Opens a query window to the specified nickname. If a message is provided, it is do phd thesis sent. If the -n switch is specified, the window is art history opened in a minimized state.

Changes the nickname of an open query window. Sends any parameters you supply directly to the server. You must know the correct RAW format of the green environment, command you are sending. Art History Paper? Useful for green, sending commands which mIRC hasn't implemented yet. Art History Paper? The -q switch makes the raw work quietly without printing what it's sending. This command does the same thing as /quote in other IRC clients. /raw PRIVMSG nickname :Hello there! /remini inifile section [item] Deletes whole sections or single items in can everyone achieve the american essay, an INI file. /remini my.ini DDE ServerStatus.

This would delete the ServerStatus item, and: /remini my.ini DDE. Would delete the DDE section. See the /writeini command below for a related example. Warning: Do not use this command to art history modify any of the green environment essay, INI files currently being used by mIRC. Deletes the art history paper, specified file. The -b switch deletes the file and moves it to green environment essay the recycle bin. /rename filename newfilename Renames a file, can also be used to art history paper move a file from one directory to another. This resets the $idle identifier to zero or to the number of seconds you specify.

Deletes the sorrento, specified directory. Note: If the directory contains files, it cannot be deleted. /run [-np] filename [parameters] Runs the specified program with parameters. The -n switch minimizes the window of the art history, application being run.

The -p switch sets the working path to the path of the application being run. You can enclose the filename or parameters in quotes if you need to. Achieve The American? If you specify a non-executable file, mIRC tries to open it with the application associated with that file. Saves the specified popup or remote users/variables file. /save -ps status.ini saves the status popup to art history status.ini. /save -pn nick.ini saves the nickname list popup to nick.ini. /save -ru users.ini saves the user list to users.ini. /save -rv vars.ini saves the variables list to sorrento vars.ini.

Note: You can only save one section at a time. /savebuf [-sgao] [lines] window | dialog id filename Saves the specified number of lines from the end of the buffer of the specified window into the specified filename. /savebuf 20 @test info.txt. This saves the art history, last 20 lines in custom window @test to info.txt. /savebuf 10-40 @test info.txt. This saves lines 10 to 40 in custom window @test to info.txt. The -s switch saves the can everyone achieve dream essay, status window buffer, the -g switch saves the finger window buffer, and the -a switch makes it append the text to the end of a file instead of overwriting it.

The -o switch indicates that you have specified [dialog id] parameters instead of paper a window name in order to save text from a custom dialog control. Updates all mIRC-related INI files with the current settings. This sends a message to the current channel or query window. So /say Hello there would be the same as just typing Hello there. Note: You can't use this command in the remote section. Use /msg #channel message instead.

/server [-emnsarpfocz] server/groupname [port] [password] [-i nick anick email name] [-jn #channel pass] Connects you to a server, first disconnecting you from the current server. /server 6667 mypassword. If you type /server with no parameters, mIRC will connect to the last server you used. If you use the server command while still connected, you will be disconnected with your normal quit message and will then connect to the specified server. You can also use /server N which connects to the Nth server in the server list in children, the connect dialog. You can also use /server groupname which will cycle through all the servers in the server list which have that group name until it connects to one of them. The -e switch initiates a secure connection to art history an SSL capable server.

Alternatively you can prefix the port number with a plus sign, eg. +7001. The -m switch creates a new server window for that connection and connects to hotel the server. The -n switch does the art history paper, same thing but does not connect to the server. The -pfoc switches prevent perform, popup favorites folder, autojoin channels, and the on connect event when you connect to a server. The -z switch minimizes the new server window. If you specify any of the -sar switches, the format of the command becomes: /server -sar [server] [-p port] [-g group] [-w password] [-d description] -s sorts the servers list. -a adds a server. If it exists, it is updated. -r removes a server. mIRC tries to find a match for either the can everyone the american essay, server address or the description in art history, the existing servers list.

You can also specify none for -g -w and -d to clear the essay, current setting. Manipulates the display of the paper, main mIRC window, where -n = minimize, -r = restore, -s = show, -t = tray, -x = maximize, -o = on thesis on aslyum seekers children, top, -p = not on art history, top, -m = minimize according to tray settings. The -l switch can be used with the thesis, -nt switches to lock mIRC. Selects or de-selects lines in a channel nickname listbox. It can select either the Nth nickname in art history paper, a listbox, or a specified nickname. If you do not specify any switches, any existing selections in the listbox are cleared. If you specify the -a switch then the hotel, specified is selected without affecting the selection states of other lines. Paper? If you specify the -r switch then the specified item is de-selected.

Sends the specified text to Monologue (or Text Assist) which is a program that speaks whatever text is service sent to it. Note: This feature only art history paper works with the very old versions of the above software. The new versions do not support the method that mIRC uses. /splay [-cwmpq] filename Plays the specified sound, see the Playing Sounds section. /sreq [+m|-m] [ask | auto | ignore] This is the do phd, command line equivalent of setting the DCC Send request radio buttons in the dcc options dialog (see /creq above). The +m|-m switch turns the minimize setting on|off. Turns control code stripping options in Options dialog on/off. would turn bold, underline, reverse stripping on paper, , and turn color stripping off . /timer[N/name] [-cdeomhipr] [time] repetitions interval command

Activates the essay, specified timer to perform the specified command at a specified interval, and optionally at a specified time. If you are not connected to a server and you start a timer, it defaults to being an art history paper offline timer which means it will continue to run whether you are connected to a server or not. If you are connected to essay sorrento a server and paper, you start a timer, it defaults to being an online timer, which means that if you disconnect from the server, it will be turned off. Environment? You can specify the -o switch to force it to be an art history offline timer. /timer1 0 20 /ame is AWAY! Timer1 will repeat an all channel action every 20 seconds until you stop the timer. If you specify a delay of 0 seconds, the timer will trigger immediately after the calling script ends.

/timer5 10 60 /msg #games For more info on the latest games do /msg GaMeBoT info. Timer5 will repeat this message to channel #games every sixty seconds and essay, stop after 10 times. /timer9 14:30 1 1 /say It's now 2:30pm. This will wait until 2:30pm and will then announce the time once and art history, stop. To see a list of active timers type /timers.

To see the setting for timer1 type /timer1. To deactivate timer1 type /timer1 off. To deactivate all timers type /timers off. If you are activating a new timer you do not need to specify the timer number, just use: /timer 10 20 /ame I'm not here! And mIRC will allocate the essay hotel sorrento, first free timer it finds to this command. If you specify the -c switch, this makes mIRC catch up a timer by executing it more than once during one interval if the art history paper, real-time interval isn't matching your requested interval.

If you specify the -m or -h switch, this indicates that the interval delay is in dissertation service juridique, milliseconds. Note: The -h switch creates a high-resolution multimedia timer. This type of timer should only be used in critical timer situations since it uses system resources heavily. The -d switch ensures that a timer and any subsequent timers using the -d switch are triggered in that order. If you specify the -e switch, this executes the art history paper, command associated with the specified timer name, also works if you specify a wildcard name. The $ltimer identifier returns the number of the timer that was just started by the /timer command.

Instead of dissertation help service juridique using a number you can also specify a name for a timer. /timershow 0 10 echo -a $nick $server $time. You can force identifiers to be re-evaluated when used in a /timer command by art history using the format $!me or $!time. If you wish to turn off a range of timers, you can use a wildcard for the number, for example: Will turn off all timers from 30 to 39. The -pr switches pause and resume a timer respectively. The -i switch makes a timer dynamically associate with whatever happens to be the active connection. If a server window is closed, the timer is associated with the next available server window. /timestamp [-fgs|a|e] [on|off|default] [windowname]

Turns timestamping of events on do phd, or off . Art History Paper? If you specify default , uses the global timestamp setting. -s = for status window. -a = for active window. -e = for on aslyum seekers, every window. If a windowname is not specified, then the global timstamp switch is turned on or off. The -f switch allows you to set the event timestamp format, eg. /timestamp -f [HH:nn] The -g switch allows you to set the logging timestamp format. /titlebar [@window] text Sets the art history paper, main application titlebar.

If you specify a custom @window name, then the titlebar for help service juridique, that custom window is changed. Changes your nickname to a temporary nickname, without affecting your main or alternate nicknames. Fills the $1 $2 . Paper? $N identifiers with tokens in text separated by character c, eg.: /tokenize 44 a,b c,d,e. The above command would set $1 = a, $2 = b c, $3 = d, $4 = e. Unloads the specified alias or remote script file. /unload -a aliases.ini unloads the alias.ini file.

/unload -rs script.ini unloads the script.ini file. The -n switch prevents a script from having the on david reed, unload event triggered. Note: You can only unload one script at a time. Usually the channel nicknames list and art history paper, IAL in a kick/part/quit script event are updated after the script finishes, this command updates them immediately. /url [on | off | show | hide | -dranils] [[N | mark ] | address] Show or hides the do phd get published, URL list window, and allows you to modify the current list of addresses in art history, it. The -r switch deletes the Nth item, or all items that match the mark you specify.

The -an switches allow you to open a browser window to an address, where -a = activate browser, and -n = use a new browser window. The -ils switches allow you to insert an sorrento item, load, and save the list, respectively. /winhelp filename [key] Opens a help file with the specified search key. /write [-cidna l# s# w# r#] filename [text] Writes lines to a text file. For example: /write store.txt This line will be appended to the end of file store.txt. The -c switch clears the file completely before writing to it, so it allows you to start with a clean slate. /write -c c:info.txt This file will be erased and have this line written to it.

The -l# switch specifies the line number where the text is to be written. /write -l5 c:info.txt This line will overwrite the 5th line in the file. The -i switch indicates that the text should be inserted at the specified line instead of overwriting it. If you do not specify any text then a blank line is inserted. If you do not specify a line number then a blank line is added to art history the end of the file. /write -il5 c:info.txt This line will be inserted at the 5th line in the file. The -d switch deletes a line in the file. Essay Hotel Sorrento? If you don't specify a line number then the paper, last line in the file is thesis deleted. /write -dl5 c:info.txt. The above command will delete the 5th line in the file.

The -s# switch scans a file for the line beginning with the specified text and performs the operation on that line. /write -dstest c:info.txt. This will scan file info.txt for a line beginning with the paper, word test and essay hotel sorrento, if found, deletes it. If you do not specify any switches then the art history paper, text is dissertation help service just added to the end of the file. The -w# switch scans a file for paper, the line containing the achieve, specified wildcard text and performs the paper, operation on thesis on aslyum, that line. The -r# switch implies a regex match.

Note: With both -s# and -w# you can enclose the scan text in quotes if it contains spaces. The -a switch indicates that mIRC should append the line of text you specified to art history the existing text of the specified line. The -n switch prevents it from essay, adding a $crlf to the end of the text. Note: You cannot use this command to write to art history an INI file. If you do so, you will most likely corrupt the INI file.

Writes to files in the standard INI file format. If the -n switch is thesis on aslyum seekers specified, mIRC will attempt to write to art history the .ini file even if it is the american larger than 64k. A part of the mirc.ini file looks like this: You could achieve this with /writeini by using: /writeini my.ini DDE ServerStatus on. /writeini my.ini DDE ServiceName mirc. You can delete whole sections or items by using the art history, /remini command.

Warning: Do not use this command to modify any of the INI files that mIRC is help currently using.

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The Crafted Word Rubrics Resources. Explicating Themes in Literature. The first triangle of the paragraph introduces the theme in a broad way, and then narrows it down to a more focused theme that you can effectively write about in a single paragraph. The blue rectangle is the central part of your paragraph. It contains the text reference and text support that “proves” your theme is evident in the actual text. The bottom triangle contains the head and heart, which, in many ways, should be the most interesting and thoughtful part of your paragraph.

It is where you discuss the importance of the theme in the text support and text reference in the smoking gun. Paper! See how (as opposed to the upper triangle) it starts narrow and expands to allow you to thesis on aslyum seekers logically tie back in to art history paper your broad theme in your concluding sentence. Feel free (and they are free!) to do phd thesis download and use any Crafted Word Rubrics. When publishing, simply include a link to TheCrafted and help us spread the paper news of our site. Thanks. Literary Paragraph Rubric This is a word doc that you can open in Microsoft Word, Google Docs or in Mac Pages.

How To Write Great Opening Paragraphs. Common Literary Analysis. I have compiled a short list of the dissertation service most common mistakes writers make when using the literary analysis paragraph rubric. It is worth another look at your own paragraphs to see if you have made any of these mistakes. That “first look” at a student’s essay is art history incredibly important to most teachers.

It is our first clue that a student “cares” about the assignment—or doesn’t. It shows us whether or not a student has read and incorporated the achieve dream essay details of the assignment into art history, a writing piece. In the on aslyum children case of the Literary Analysis Paragraph Rubric there are specific directions for where to put the assignment details: name, date, etc; there are guidelines for art history paper, including a one-word or one phrase theme, and dissertation there is a place to put a guiding quote. Follow any teacher’s guidelines for formatting, and he or she will be on your side after that quick and critical first look ! GUIDING THEME MISTAKES. This comprises the first third of art history paper, your paragraph and guides the reader in the direction your paragraph. The three parts act together to thesis on aslyum children clearly state the reason your paragraph exists.

Broad Theme: The most common mistake is to make this a long and paper complicated sentence. The only purpose of the broad theme is to “engage” the green environment readers interest by introducing an art history, enduring theme and dissertation service juridique tying it into your narrow theme. Narrow Theme: The most common mistake is to omit the one word theme and a specific reference to art history paper the literary piece in the sentence. David Reed! This sentence shows how the broad theme is used in the literary piece. One/Two Punch: Don’t go back to your broad theme here; this is the place to narrow down your narrow theme even further to art history paper a specific character, event or observation. TEXT REFERENCE SUPPORT MISTAKES.

This should fill up the center third of your paragraph. It is the hotel sorrento physical proof of your theme working within the text of art history paper, your literary piece. Setup: Oftentimes a writer does not provide enough specific detail for the reader to fully understand the can everyone achieve the american context of the art history paper coming quote (the smoking gun). Be sure to dissertation service fully create the art history paper “image” a reader needs to “see” by including a meaty and specific who, what, when, where, why leading into the actual text support, AKA: The Smoking Gun . Smoking Gun: This can only thesis on aslyum seekers children be the actual text from the literary piece. The most common mistake is to forget to cite the source of the art history quote, or to forget to italicize the quote–or to forget to block quote the the american selection if it is longer than two lines on paper, the page. EXPLICATION EXPLANATION MISTAKES. Head and hotel sorrento Heart: This is the foundation of your paragraph. Without it, your paragraph will be as empty as it is shallow. It shows and tells the art history paper reader how your theme is relevant to your text reference. It makes reading your paragraph a worthwhile (edifying) experience.

Head and Heart: By far the most common mistake here is to write about the theme itself instead of how the theme is specifically used in the piece of david reed essay, literature you are analyzing—and even more specifically how the theme is used in paper, your text reference. Check this section and get published make sure that “every” sentence refers back to the literary piece (and your narrow theme) in art history paper, some way shape or form. TRANSITION OR CONCLUSION. This part of your paragraph should signal your readers that they have either reached their destination or you are talking the next exit off the highway. There is seekers children no reason to be wordy here. Too many words is paper like trying to clear a muddy puddle with your hand. The most common mistake here is referencing your broad theme without referencing the piece of literature you just finished analyzing. Get On: The biggest mistake when transitioning to a new paragraph is when there is no logical flow between paragraphs. My rule of thumb is that you “should” be able to put a conjunctive adverb (moreover, finally, however, etc) or a conjunction (so, yet, and,or, nor, for, but) between the last line of one paragraph and the first line of the next.

If you can’t do that, there might be something more you need to do…. Dissertation Juridique! Get Out: It is critical to end a final or single paragraph with a sense of finality, so my advice is to finish it clean. The most common mistake here is to introduce a new thought that you haven’t already discussed in art history paper, your paragraph–or you forget to green environment refer back to your one-word theme AND the literary piece. Never refer back only to the broad theme. This final sentence needs to capture your narrow theme PLUS the added insight of your explanation and explication. PROOFREADING, EDITING REVISING. Few things in a student’s life can be as aggravating as receiving a paper back that is full of swirls of red ink and hastily scrolled admonitions to spell correctly, include proper punctuation and grammar, avoid homophones and art history paper first person musings. More infuriating might be the thesis on aslyum fact that your teacher is ignoring your amazing and insightful analysis just because of a few small writing mistakes. In the end, a mistake is a mistake.

All of these “must” be found and corrected by art history paper you. Proofread, edit and revise when your mind is fresh and concentration is not a Herculean and thesis seekers Sisyphus-like task. Use a good grammar and spell checker. Let a friend who is particularly good at stuff like this take a look at your work. Give a damn here and you will be amply rewarded! The Literary Analysis Paragraph Rubric. “A mighty book requires a mighty theme.” The Literary Analysis Paragraph Rubric. L iterary analysis is art history a type of writing where a writer literally breaks a story down to seekers its most basic elements and then analyzes how and why those elements work in that particular story. These elements include identifying important themes, comparing and contrasting stories and authors, defining writing techniques and devices—and anything else that relates to art history the way in which a story is structured and dissertation help service told. Literary analysis deals only in what can be proved objectively via the text, and not because how and why a certain story makes you—as an individual—think and feel subjectively about that story.

The Literary Analysis Paragraph #1 is paper designed to help any writer find and explicate the major themes in a story and to dissertation service juridique define the paper importance of these themes in the story. The fact that you, as the analyst, are dealing with objective and provable facts is the main reason why most teachers forbid the use of the “I” voice in this type of writing. It is green essay here where I make the distinction between literary analysis and literary reflection: a literary reflection “reflects” your unique emotional and intellectual response to art history paper the story; whereas, a literary analysis “analyzes” the form, devices, style, and content of a story. In an analysis, the “I” is get published not needed and does not help you prove your point because the point is proved using verifiable facts. Paper! Throwing yourself into the mix just muddies the water and burdens your writing with unnecessary words and distractions. The basic structure of the literary analysis paragraph rubric is, however, essentially the same as the narrative paragraph rubric: you open with a clear and david concise guiding theme or topic [broad theme, narrow theme, one/two punch]; you offer supporting facts and proof [smoking gun]; and in your third section of the paragraph, you explain and explicate how your guiding theme relates to the story [head and heart].

Finally, you “get on or get out.” If you are writing a single paragraph, you get out with a sense of finality; if you are writing a multi-paragraph essay, you may need to find a way to transition in art history paper, a logical and unforced way to the next paragraph in your essay. It is important as a reader, and even more so as a writer, to be able to understand the importance of themes in the american, a piece of literature, for exploring the themes of being human—and being connected (or disconnected) to the rest of humanity is the essential role of any writer! We don’t read because we care about a writer; and if you are a writer, you need to art history paper understand that nobody cares about “you” as a person any more than some guy living three towns over from you; however, we do care about dissertation help service juridique ourselves, and if as a writer you put us in touch with a deeper side of our head and paper heart; if you pull on the strings of our imagination in such a way that we cry when you want us to cry, laugh when you want us to laugh, and thesis get published think what you want us to think—then you have succeeded as a writer, and those people who do not care about you as a person will care about what you write, and they will beat a path to an door where they can find the pages that hold your words. Literary Analysis Paragraph Rubric #1. T he golden rule of paper, writers is to service always know what your readers want and expect—and give it to them in well-crafted writing, which almost always means well-constructed paragraphs! I love using the term “well-crafted” because it implies that writing well requires a deliberate and attentive focus.

Good writing is never finished; it is abandoned. Honestly: give yourself ninety minutes to two hours to finish this. A writer’s first words are seldom his or her best words. Over the years I have read and paper graded thousands of these paragraphs. It is not hard to essay hotel figure out who gave a damn and who didn’t. It is obvious who reads the details of this rubric before creating his or her own paragraph. Paper! So do your best. Give a damn. It works. The image on the sidebar is a visual to help you see what a detailed paragraph includes:

The first triangle of the paragraph introduces the theme in a broad way, and then narrows it down to green environment essay a more focused theme that you can effectively write about in a single paragraph. The blue rectangle is the central part of your paragraph. It contains the art history text reference and green environment text support that “proves” your theme is evident in art history paper, the actual text. The bottom triangle contains the head and heart, which, in many ways, should be the most interesting and thoughtful part of your paragraph. It is where you discuss the importance of the theme in the text support and do phd thesis text reference in the smoking gun. See how (as opposed to the upper triangle) it starts narrow and expands to allow you to logically tie back in to your broad theme in your concluding sentence. Be sure to art history follow “all” of the details of the rubric explained in the steps below, and try your hand at a creating a well-crafted literary analysis paragraph—one that we call a “ whamdammer ” in my class! In the rubric that follows, I use an example paragraph written by Ryan Ewing one of do phd get published, my 8 th grade students in 2013. The strength of Ryan’s paragraph is not just that it is paper a good paragraph; it s because he follows the david reed essay details of the rubric throughout his paragraph. If you wish, replace his text with your own text, then cut and paste your words into a new document and paper save and submit as required by your teacher. phs . Do Phd Thesis! It is art history paper not hard to figure out who gave a damn and who didn’t.

It is obvious who reads the details of this rubric before creating his or her own paragraph. So do your best. Reed Essay! Give a damn. It works. Paper! The image on the sidebar is a visual to help you see what a detailed paragraph includes:

The first triangle of the paragraph introduces the essay hotel theme in a broad way, and art history paper then narrows it down to a more focused theme that you can effectively write about in a single paragraph. The blue rectangle is the central part of essay, your paragraph. It contains the text reference and art history text support that “proves” your theme is green evident in the actual text. The bottom triangle contains the head and heart, which, in many ways, should be the most interesting and paper thoughtful part of your paragraph. It is where you discuss the importance of the theme in the text support and text reference in the smoking gun. See how (as opposed to the upper triangle) it starts narrow and expands to green environment essay allow you to paper logically tie back in to your broad theme in your concluding sentence. Be sure to follow “all” of the details of the rubric explained in the steps below, and try your hand at a creating a well-crafted literary analysis paragraph—one that we call a “ whamdammer ” in my class! In the rubric that follows, I use an example paragraph written by david reed essay Ryan Ewing one of my 8 th grade students in 2013. The strength of Ryan’s paragraph is not just that it is a good paragraph; it s because he follows the details of the art history paper rubric throughout his paragraph.

If you wish, replace his text with your own text, then cut and paste your words into a new document and save and submit as required by your teacher. #1: The Assignment Information: Who are you and what are your writing about? As Mae West said, “It is better to look marvellous than to feel marvellous.” In that spirit, create assignments that “look” good. Essay! In the top right corner of your assignment post your name, class, section, assignment name and date.

Huck Finn Paragraph. #2. The Universal Theme. State the unifying theme! A paragraph needs to have a unifying theme that is developed and explained throughout the paper paragraph.

In this rubric, we are only writing about a single important theme that can be captured n a single word or short phrase. Your one word or short phrase theme is the specific aspect of the human condition that is a central theme in the writing piece– but do not mention the writing piece here. It should be centered below your quote and above your opening paragraph in size 18, bold font. Your theme should be one word (ideally) or a short phrase—not a full sentence. Quote from the text that captures your unifying theme. This quote is by no means “necessary” for help, a good paragraph, and you would not include it in an essay, but it is a good practice when writing a paragraph, and helps to keep you focused on the theme of paper, your paragraph–and it sets the tone, mood and direction for david, your reader. Choose a quote from the writing piece” that fully captures the theme you wish to explore in your paragraph. This quote is the paper main source for your text reference and children text support in your paragraph. This can be longer or shorter than you will need or use in your paragraph. Center your quote above your paragraph in italics (No quotation marks.) Be sure to art history paper cite your source using brackets: For example, [ The Odyssey , Book VII, Lines 331-335]

Well, I warn’t long making him understand I warn’t dead. I was ever so glad to see Jim. I warn’t lonesome now. Reed! I told him I warn’t afraid of art history paper, HIM telling the people where I was. I talked along, but he only set there and looked at me; never said nothing. [The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Chapter VIII ] #4: The Broad Theme. The Universal Theme of the Paragraph! This is your first sentence of a body paragraph. In a way, it is almost like the “title” of your paragraph. It is meant to indicate the thesis on aslyum children direction of the art history paper paragraph in a compelling and interesting way by creating a clear, concise, and memorable statement of a universal theme—a universal reality that relevant, interesting and compelling to your readers. Do not mention the environment essay writing piece in this sentence because this sentence is supposed to introduce the art history paper theme of your paragraph in a general way that is thesis on aslyum seekers interesting to a potential reader.

Oftentimes, especially in paper, a longer, multi-paragraph essay, it makes sense to remove this broad theme, but in green environment, a one-paragraph response, I’d leave it in there. Nothing beats spending time with a good friend. #5. The Narrow Theme. Introduce the Theme in art history, the Literature You Are Analysing. This is can everyone achieve the american essentially the paper more focused topic sentence of get published, your paragraph —and as such, it is the most important sentence in your paragraph! The Narrow Theme narrows down your theme in paper, a specific way by writing a phrase or sentence that captures how your one-word theme is used in the literature you are analysing. This is your “clear, concise and memorable” topic sentence. Be sure to include a specific reference to green essay the writing piece AND a specific reference to your one-word theme in this sentence. In the book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , by Mark Twain, Huck and Jim grow to be two inseparable friends that set out on a great journey together.

#6: The One/Two Punch. Really Narrow Down Your Theme! Follow your Narrow Theme with one or two more sentences with what I call the one/two punch that add detail or explanation to your theme and narrows down the topic even further. The two companions go through a lot over their time together, but they never give up on each other. Jim and Huck are as different as people can be, physically; however, it is their similar minds that bring them together as friends. What about exploring and writing about more than one theme in a single paragraph?

The Literary Analysis Rubric is designed to help writers explicate individual themes in paper, individual paragraphs, but there are occasions where you need or want to children explore two or more themes in a single paragraph. With a bit of tweaking, you can still use the basic rules of this rubric and weave in a discussion and exploration of additional themes within the same paragraph. My one rule is that there needs to be either a symbiotic relationship between the themes OR an antagonistic relationship that develops in paper, such a way in the story that it is important to discuss the relationship between these themes. Friendship and Hospitality are both major themes in The Odyssey , and it makes a lot of sense to can everyone achieve the american describe the relationship between these two themes. Likewise, Fate and Free Will are important—although opposite—themes that recur throughout The Odyssey ; hence, exploring the roles and relationship of art history paper, these contradictory themes in children, the same paragraph makes a lot of art history paper, sense.

Be sure to introduce all of the themes in your broad theme/narrow theme/one-two punch. Add Text Reference: Who? What? When? Where? Why? The setup is the text “reference” that describes in thesis on aslyum seekers children, detail (and explicates) the “scene” leading in to art history your quote (the smoking gun) from the literary piece. The setup and the smoking gun work together to add the “proof” that you have read and do phd get published studied the piece of literature you are analysing. Without the paper smoking gun, you are just rambling around and can everyone achieve the american essay going nowhere—unless your readers are already fully aware of paper, everything that happens in your piece of literature. The setup to reed your smoking gun should include a who, what , when, where, why reference to paper a scene from the piece of hotel, literature you are analysing.

Use specific images and actions to art history paper describe the scene leading into dissertation service juridique, the quote (smoking gun!) Notice the paper colon Ryan uses to “introduce” the quote. Notice, too, that he describes this scene in the present tense! And he reinforces the theme of friendship again! In the first couple of days after he ran away from achieve the american essay his pap’s house, Huck feels very much alone in the vast world that he is hiding in: no friends , no nothing—that is, before he finds Jim. One day, while Huck is art history paper out exploring the island, he stumbles upon Jim’s camp; while he is appalled that Jim would run away from Ms. Watson, he is happy that he now has a companion on the island. Even though Jim thinks Huck is on aslyum a ghost at first, Huck is quick to convince him that he is not: Adding Quotes The Proof That the Theme Is in the Story! The smoking gun is the quote (text support, aka: actual text from the piece of literature) you use from the writing piece you are analyzing. A literary analysis without text support is like an egg without a yolk!

Text reference (setup) and text support (smoking gun) work together to art history paper prove you’ve read and analyzed the text and prepares your reader for your head and heart section of the paragraph. Well, I warn’t long making him understand I warn’t dead. I was ever so glad to see Jim. I warn’t lonesome now. I told him I warn’t afraid of HIM telling the people where I was. Dream! [The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Chapter VIII ] Using Outside Source Analysis. We only write well about that which we know well, so it is important that a scholar “studies and paper researches” his or her topic as thoroughly as possible before writing. It is achieve dream essay perfectly acceptable (and I think desirable) to include some references from reputable sources that support your own conclusions and analysis. It not only shows that you are not alone in your thinking, it also shows that you have done more than simply express your own thoughts—it shows you have researched and documented more “proof” that your analysis is valid.

How to cite outside sources… It is art history paper imperative that you cite any outside source that you use. It is unwise and unethical if you don’t cite in a clear and do phd get published acceptable way. Ask your teacher which format is paper acceptable. If you are writing on your own, chose the style you wish: MLA, APA, Chicago, etc.

If you are not sure how to cite a source, look it up online. There are some great resources out there, such as,, and a host of help service, others. Things to art history remember… The best place for outside source material is in the Head Heart. Analyze, Explain Explicate the david reed Theme in the Passage. This is the “brains brilliance” part of your paragraph. Paper! It shows your reader your how much you know and how insightful you are about your theme and how it used in the literary work you are discussing. Write at least four sentences that, explicate, illustrate, and elaborate upon your topic sentence and the “Theme” as it used in literary piece, specifically the can everyone the american dream smoking gun! Huck declares a friend as someone who he can trust; by art history saying that he was not scared of the american dream essay, Jim telling on paper, him, he is showing that he trusts Jim as a good friend . He knows that Jim is the sorrento kind of person that would comfort him and give him good company –that is exactly what a good friend does.

Huck is white kid who hasn’t quite yet developed feeling for others. Jim, on the other hand, is a slave; however, their similar taste for adventure is what ultimately makes them friends . Note: It is important to keep hammering home the main theme word or phrase–though you can (and maybe should) use a bit more variation than in here. If this paragraph is “transitioning” to a new paragraph, (as is usually the case in an essay) craft your words in a way that sets up the next paragraph. This creates what is called “logical flow.” If the paragraph is art history simply ending, (as in a brief literature response) try and find a way of tying back into your opening theme in a new and refreshing way. This gives your readers a concise and confident visual and mental cue that you have said all you need to essay sorrento say. Art History! Be sure—one more time—to include a reference to seekers your theme in the conclusion. For Example: Throughout the rest of the novel, Jim and Huck remain close friends.

They come to realize that neither of them could have evaded capture for so long if it weren’t for their friendship. For Huck and Jim, their friendship has allowed them to succeed and thrive together on a difficult journey. A writing piece is never finished. It is abandoned. Once you are this far, now is the time to go back, edit, revise and to do whatever needs to be done to make this a worthy and enduring piece of literature in paper, its own right. I know this is a lot of work for a paragraph (usually at leas t to hours of good work)–but it is what you need to do if you want to create a clear, concise, compelling, well supported and interesting literary analysis paragraph! Copy and Paste the Completed Paragraph. Put it all together and green environment edit and revise as needed!

After you have completed all of the steps, put it all together, proofread carefully, edit and paper revise, and turn in the assignment as required. I have put in bold how often Ryan reinforces the theme of friendship in this paragraph. Essay! This emphasis indicate that the paragraph has unity, while the rubric creates logic flow; however, it is the way you craft your words and sentences that gives the paragraph fluency and flow–which is as important as anything! Huck Finn Paragraph. Well, I warn’t long making him understand I warn’t dead. I was ever so glad to art history see Jim. I warn’t lonesome now. I told him I warn’t afraid of juridique, HIM telling the people where I was. I talked along, but he only set there and looked at me; never said nothing. [The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Chapter VIII ] Nothing beats spending time with a good friend.

In the book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain, Huck and Jim grow to be two inseparable friends that set out on a great journey together. The two companions go through a lot over their time together, but they never give up on each other. They are as different as people can be, physically; however, it is their similar minds that bring them together as friends. In the paper first couple of days after he ran away from his pap’s house, Huck feels very much alone in the vast world that he is hiding in; no friends, no nothing—that is, before he finds Jim! One day, while Huck is out exploring the island, he stumbles upon Jim’s camp; while he is sorrento appalled that Jim would run away from Ms. Watson, he is happy that he now has a companion on the island. Even though Jim thinks Huck is a ghost at first, Huck is quick to convince him that he is paper not: “ Well, I warn’t long making him understand I warn’t dead. I was ever so glad to see Jim. Green Environment Essay! I warn’t lonesome now.

I told him I warn’t afraid of HIM telling the people where I was.” [The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Chapter VIII] Huck declares a friend as someone whom he can trust; by saying that he was not scared of Jim telling on him, he is showing that he trusts Jim as a good friend. He knows that Jim is the kind of person that would comfort him and art history give him good company—and that is exactly what a good friend does. Huck is reed white kid who hasn’t quite yet developed feeling for the black slaves that have been so much a part of art history, his life. Jim, on the other hand, is a slave; however, their similar taste for adventure is environment what ultimately makes them friends. Art History! Throughout the dissertation service juridique rest of the art history novel, Jim and Huck remain close friends.

They come to essay realize that neither of them could have evaded capture for so long if it weren’t for their friendship. For Huck and Jim, their friendship has allowed them to succeed and thrive together on a difficult journey. Now that’s a fine looking paragraph! Explore more of The Crafted Word Rubrics. If we don’t learn from what we do, we learn little of real value. If we don’t make the time to explore, reflect and rethink our ways of paper, doing things, we will never grow, evolve and reach our greatest potential or tap into the possibilities in our lives. by Fitz | February 18, 2017 | Assess, Journal | 1 Comment. by Fitz | November 16, 2016 | Essays, Journal | 0 Comments.

by Fitz | November 14, 2016 | Essays, Journal | 7 Comments. The most powerful and enduring connection we share as a human race is our desire and need to share stories. David Essay! We engage in the art of storytelling more than most of us ever realize; whether we are describing our kids’ soccer games, critiquing the latest HBO series, telling a ribald joke, or remembering a long lost friend, event, memory, book, or experience. by Fitz | April 27, 2016 | Essays, Journal, Write | 31 Comments.

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31 Attention-Grabbing Cover Letter Examples. Art History Paper. The Muse Editor. Traditional cover letter wisdom tells you to start a cover letter with something to the effect of: Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to green environment, apply for the position of art history paper, Marketing Manager with the Thomas Company. Hotel Sorrento. We say: The days of art history, cookie cutter cover letter intros are long gone. Here’s the children thing: Your cover letter is the best way to introduce to the hiring manager who you are, what you have to offer, and why you want the job—but you have an extremely limited amount of time to do all of art history, those things. So, if you really want to get noticed, you’ve got to start right off the can everyone dream bat with something that grabs your reader’s attention. What do we mean?

Well, we won’t just tell you, we’ll show you—with 31 examples of original cover letter introductions. We don’t recommend copying and paper pasting them because, well, your cover letter should be unique to your stories, background, and interests, but you can most definitely use them to get inspired for your next application. Do Phd. Don't worry—we've got you covered. Many companies say that they’re looking for people who not only have the art history paper skills to can everyone achieve dream essay, do the job, but who are truly passionate about what they’re spending their time on every day. If that’s what your dream company is paper really looking for (hint: read the job description), try an do phd thesis intro that shows off why you’re so excited to art history, be part of the team. If truly loving data is thesis on aslyum wrong, I don’t want to art history paper, be right. It seems like the rest of the team at david essay Chartbeat feels the same way—and that’s just one of the reasons why I think I’d be the perfect next hire for your sales team. I’ve been giving my friends and family free style advice since I was 10, and recently decided it’s time I get paid for it. That’s why I couldn’t believe it when I found a personal stylist position at J. Hilburn. After about three years of trying out different roles at early-stage startups around San Francisco, watching more “find your passion” keynotes than I’d like to admit, and assuring my parents that, yes, I really do have a real job, I’m starting to come to terms with the fact that I’m only really good at two things: writing great content and paper getting it out into the world.

When I was growing up, all I wanted to be was one of green essay, those people who pretend to be statues on the street. Thankfully, my career goals have become a little more aspirational over the years, but I love to draw a crowd and entertain the art history masses—passions that make me the dissertation service perfect community manager. When I graduated from Ohio State last May, my career counselor gave me what I consider to be some pretty bad advice: “Just get any job, and art history figure the rest out do phd thesis, later.” While I think I could have gained good transferrable skills and paper on-the-job experience anywhere, I wanted to make sure my first step gave me opportunities for professional development, mentorship, and rotations through different departments. Enter: Verizon. The other day, I took a career assessment, which told me I should be a maritime merchant. I’m not quite sure what that is, but it did get me thinking: A role that combines my skills in business development with my lifelong passion for the ocean would be my absolute dream. Which is can everyone the american dream how I found this role at Royal Caribbean. Start With Your Love for the Company. Similarly, many companies want to hire people who already know, love, eat, and art history paper sleep their brand.

And in these cases, what better to kick off your cover letter than a little flattery? Bonus points if you can tell a story—studies show that stories are up to environment, 22 times more memorable than facts alone. Of course, remember when you’re telling a company why you love it to art history, be specific and genuine. Because, um, no one likes an overly crazed fangirl. I pretty much spent my childhood in the cheap seats at help service Cubs games, snacking on art history popcorn and cheering on the team with my grandfather. It’s that passion that’s shaped my career—from helping to establish the sports marketing major at my university to leading a college baseball team to an undefeated season as assistant coach—and what led me to apply for this position at the Chicago Cubs. Most candidates are drawn to do phd get published, startups for the free food, bean bag chairs, and loose dress code. Paper. And while all of those things sound awesome coming from my all-too-corporate cubicle, what really attracted me to dissertation service juridique, Factual is the collaborative, international team. It was Rudy, my Golden Retriever, who first found the operations assistant opening (he’s really excited about the art history prospect of coming to work with me every day). Green Environment Essay. But as I learned more about Zoosk and art history what it is doing to green essay, transform the mobile dating space, I couldn’t help but get excited to be part of the team, too.

When I was seven, I wanted to art history, be the GEICO gecko when I grew up. I eventually realized that wasn’t an option, but you can imagine my excitement when I came across the events manager position, which would have me working side by side with my favorite company mascot. When I attended Austin Film Festival for the first time last month, I didn’t want to leave. David Essay. So I decided I shouldn’t—and immediately went to check out art history, job openings at the company. If I could make the the american dream NYC apartment rental process better for just one person, I would feel like the horrors of my recent search would all be worth it. Art History Paper. So, a customer service role at RentHop, where I could do it every day? I can’t think of anything more fulfilling. Having grown up with the Cincinnati Zoo (literally) in my backyard, I understand firsthand how you’ve earned your reputation as one of the most family-friendly venues in the State of green, Ohio. For 20 years, I’ve been impressed as your customer; now I want to impress visitors in the same way your team has so graciously done for me. ( Via @JobJenny ) I was an hour out from my first big dinner party when I realized I had forgotten to pick up the white wine. In a panic, I started Googling grocery delivery services, and that’s when I first stumbled across Instacart.

I’ve been hooked ever since, so I couldn’t help but get excited by the idea of bringing the amazingness of art history paper, Instacart to shoddy planners like me as your next social media and community manager. Though I’m happily employed as a marketing manager for OHC, seeing the essay job description for paper, Warby Parker’s PR director stopped me in my tracks. I’ve been a Warby glasses wearer for help, many years, and have always been impressed by the way the company treats its customers, employees, and the community at large. Start With an art history paper Attribute or Accomplishment. The unfortunate reality of the job hunting process is that, for any given job, you’re going to be competing with a lot of other people—presumably, a lot of other similarly qualified people. So, a great way to stand out in essay, your cover letter is to highlight something about yourself—a character trait, an accomplishment, a really impressive skill—that’ll quickly show how you stand out among other applications.

My last boss once told me that my phone manner could probably diffuse an art history paper international hostage situation. I’ve always had a knack for essay, communicating with people—the easygoing and the difficult alike—and I’d love to bring that skill to the office manager position at Shutterstock. Art History Paper. Among my colleagues, I’m known as the one who can pick up the pieces, no matter what amount of you-know-what hits the fan. Which is why I think there’s no one better to essay hotel sorrento, fill Birchbox’s customer service leader position. Last December, I ousted our company’s top salesperson from his spot—and he hasn’t seen it since. Which means, I’m ready for my next big challenge, and the sales manager role at LivingSocial just might be it.

After spending three years managing the internal communications for a 2,000-person company, I could plan a quarterly town hall or draft an art history inter-office memo in dissertation help, my sleep. What I want to do next? Put that experience to paper, work consulting executives on their communications strategy. While you won’t find the title “community manager” listed on my resume, I’ve actually been bringing people together online and green environment off for three years while running my own blog and art history series of Meetups. If you’re looking for thesis on aslyum children, someone who can follow orders to the T and doesn’t like to rock the paper boat, I’m probably not the right candidate. But if you need someone who can dig in to data, see what’s working (and what’s not), and challenge the status quo, let’s talk. Ever since my first job at Dairy Queen (yes, they DO let you eat the ice cream!) I’ve been career-focused. Essay. I completed my first internship with a professional football team while I was still in college. Art History Paper. I was hired full-time as soon as I graduated, and within six months I was promoted into hotel sorrento, a brand new department.

I thought I knew it all. But as I’ve progressed in my career, I finally realized…I absolutely do not. Art History. Shocker, right? Enter The Muse. Reed. ( Via @Kararuns729 ). Art History Paper. You might be wondering what a 15-year veteran of the accounting world is doing applying to an operations role at a food startup like ZeroCater. While I agree the shift is a little strange, I know you’re looking for someone who’s equal parts foodie and financial guru, and I think that means I’m your guy. Over the last 10 years, I’ve built my career on one simple principle: Work smarter. Sorrento. I’m the person who looks for inefficient procedures, finds ways to art history, streamline them, and consistently strives to boost the david reed essay productivity of everyone around me. It’s what’s earned me three promotions in the supply chain department at paper my current company, and it’s what I know I can do as the new operations analyst for SevOne. OK, before you read any of these, we feel we have to stamp them with a big disclaimer: Do your homework before trying anything like this—learning everything you can about the company, the hiring manager, and whether or not they’ll appreciate some sass or snark.

If they do, it’s a great way to make them smile (then call you). If they don’t? Well, better luck next time. I’m interested in the freelance writer position. But before I blow you away with all the reasons I’m going to be your next writer, I would like to tell you a little about the american dream essay, myself: I didn’t grow hair until I was about art history paper, five years old, which made everyone who crossed my stroller’s path believe me to be a boy (my name is Casey, which definitely didn’t help). Hope I got your attention. Green. ( Via @CaseCav ) Have you ever had your mom call five times a day asking for a status update on how your job search is going, and then sounding incredulous that not more progress has been made since the last phone call? That’s my life right now. But I’m hoping that soon my life will revolve around being your full-time social media manager.

The good news is, I bring more to the table than just an overbearing mom. Paper. Let me tell you more. Thank you so much for offering me the marketing manager position at Airbnb! I wholeheartedly accept. Can Everyone Achieve The American Dream. OK, I know we’re not quite there yet. Paper. But if we were, here are just a few ideas of dissertation juridique, what I would do once in the role. You’ve slept on it. You’ve made lists of pros and cons. You’ve talked to art history, your life coach, your hairdresser, and every barista on your block. So why haven’t you made your decision yet?

When you’re looking for advice, what you need is green not more, but better. If you’re constantly plagued with tough career decisions and presentation-day butterflies, you need an advocate, a listener, and sometimes, a kick in the pants. You need Rachel Elizabeth Maley. ( Via @RE_Maley ) I considered submitting my latest credit card statement as proof of art history, just how much I love online shopping, but I thought a safer approach might be writing this cover letter, describing all the reasons why I’m the girl who can take STYLIGHT’s business to the next level. On Aslyum Seekers Children. I never thought that accidentally dropping my iPhone out of a second story window would change my life (it’s a funny story—ask me about art history paper, it). But thanks to my misfortune, I discovered iCracked—and found my dream job as an expansion associate. Dissertation Service. If we were playing “Two Truths and art history paper a Lie,” I’d say the following: I’ve exceeded my sales quotas by at least 20% every quarter this year, I once won an international pie-eating contest, and I have an amazing job at Yext. Can Everyone The American Dream Essay. The last, of paper, course, is the lie. For now.

Photo of person writing courtesy of help, Sam Diephuis/Getty Images#46; Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Th Century Art History Paper: Compare & Contrast - SlideShare

Essay on Oligopoly: Top 8 Essays on Oligopoly | Markets | Microeconomics. Here is a compilation of paper essays on ‘Oligopoly’ for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Oligopoly’ especially written for school and college students. Essay on the Introduction to Oligopoly Essay on the Characteristics of Oligopoly Essay on the Scope of Study of Oligopoly Essay on the Models of Oligopoly Essay on the Sales (Revenue) Maximisation Essay on the Constrained Revenue Maximisation Essay on Game Theory Essay on Payoff (Profit) Matrix. Essay # 1. Can Everyone The American? Introduction to Oligopoly: Two extreme market forms are monopoly (characterised by the existence of a single seller) and perfect competition (characterised by a large number of sellers).

Competition is of two types- perfect competition and monopolistic competition. In perfect competition, all sellers sell ho­mogeneous products while in monopolistic competition they sell heterogeneous products. In monopoly there is no rival. So the monopolist is not concerned with the effect of his actions on rivals. In both types of art history competition, the number of firms is so large that the actions of any one seller have little, if any, effect on can everyone achieve the american dream essay, its competitors. An industry with only a few sellers is known as an oligopoly, a firm in art history paper, such an industry is known as an oligopolist. Although car-wash is a million rupee business, it is not exactly a product familiar to most consumers. However, often many familiar goods and services are supplied only by a few com­peting sellers, which means the industries we are talking about are oligopolies.

An oligopoly is not necessarily made up of do phd thesis get published large firms. When a village has only two medi­cine shops, service there is art history paper, just as much an help, oligopoly as air shuttle service between Mumbai and Pune. Essentially, oligopoly is the art history paper result of the same factors that sometimes produce monopoly, but in somewhat weaker form. Honestly, the achieve essay most important source of oligopoly is the exist­ence of economies of art history scale, which give better producers a cost advantage over thesis get published smaller ones. When these economies of scale are very strong, they lead to monopoly, but when they are not that strong they lead to competition among a small number of art history paper firms. Since an oligopoly con­tains a small number of firms, any change in the firms’ price or output influences the sales and get published, profits of competitors.

Each firm must, therefore, recognise that changes in its own policies are likely to art history elicit changes in the policies of its competitors as well. As a result of this interdependence, oligopolists face a situation in which the optimal deci­sion of one firm depends on what other firms decide to green essay do. And so there is opportunity for both conflict and cooperation. Art History Paper? Oligopoly refers to a market situation in which the number of sellers is few, but greater than one. A special case of oligopoly is monopoly in which there are only two sellers. Essay # 2. Characteristics of Oligopoly: The notable characteristics of oligopoly are: An oligopolist is neither a price-taker (like a competitor) nor a price-maker (like a monopolist).

It is a price-searcher. Help? An oligopolist is neither a big enough part of the market to be able to act as a monopolist, nor a small enough part of the market to be able to act as a competitor. But each firm is paper, a dominant part of the market. In such a situation, competition among buyers will force all the can everyone the american dream sellers to charge a uniform price for a product. Paper? But each firm is sufficiently so large a part of the market that its actions will have noticeable effects upon thesis children his rivals. This means that if a single firm changes its output, the prices charged by all the paper firms will be raised or lowered. In oligopoly, there may be product differentiation as in monopolistic competition (called differ­entiated oligopoly) or a homogeneous product may be traded by all the few dominant firms (as in pure oligopoly).

3. Interdependence and Uncertainty : In oligopoly no firm can take decision on price independently. It is because the decision to fix a new price or change an existing price will create reactions among the on aslyum children rival firms. But rivals’ reactions cannot be predicted accurately. If a firm reduces its price its rivals may reduce their prices or they may not. Art History? So there is lack of dissertation service symmetry in the behaviour of rival firms.

This type of reaction of rivals is not found in perfect competition or monopolistic competition where all firms change their price in the same direction and by the same magnitude in order to remain competitive and survive in the long run. So the outcome of a firm’s decision is uncertain. For this reason it is art history paper, difficult to predict the reed total demand for art history the product of an thesis on aslyum, oligopolistic industry. It is still more difficult, and in some situations virtually impossible, to estimate the share of an individual firm in industry’s output. It is true that the consequences of attempted price variations on the part of an individual seller are uncertain. His rivals may follow his change, or they may not, but they will, in all likelihood, notice it. The results of any action on the part of an oligopolist or even a duopolist depend upon the reactions of his rivals.

In short, it is not possible to define general price- quantity relations for an individual firm, since reaction patterns of rivals are highly uncertain and almost completely unknown. 4. Different Reaction Patterns and Use of Models : It is art history paper, not true to say that, in oligopoly, profit is the american dream essay, always maximised. It is because an oligopolist does not have control over all the art history paper variables which affect his profit. Moreover, a variety of possible reaction patterns is possible in this market—there is a conjectural variation in children, this market. Just as firm A’s profit depends on the output of firm B also, firm B’s profit, in art history paper, its turn, depends on firm A’s output. Do Phd Thesis? This is why various models are used to describe the diverse behaviour of oligopoly markets where a variety of outcomes is possible. As in art history, monopolistic competition there is not only dissertation help service, price competition but non-price competition as well in oligopoly (and, to some extent, in duopoly). Paper? For example, advertising is often a life and death question in this type of market due to strategic behaviour of all firms.

In most oligopoly situations we find intermediate outcomes. Economists are yet to emerge with a definite behaviour pattern in oligopoly. Essay # 3. Scope of Study of Oligopoly : Here we study a few of the many possible reaction patterns in duopoly and oligopoly situa­tions. The focus is on sorrento, pure oligopoly. Here we assume that all firms produce a homogeneous product. We do not discuss the case of art history differentiated oligopoly and the issue of selling cost (advertising) separately. Of course, we discuss briefly Baumol’s sales maximisation hypoth­esis—without and green environment essay, with advertising. The focus here is on the interdependence of the various sellers’ reactions, which is the essential distinguishing feature of art history oligopoly.

If the influence of one seller’s quantity decision from the profit of another, ?? i /?q j , is negligible, the industry must be either perfectly competi­tive or monopolistically competitive. If ?? i /?q j , is perceptible, the industry is duopolistic or oligopolistic. The optimum quantity and maximum profit of a duopolist or oligopolist depend upon the actions of the firms belonging to the industry. He can control only his own output level (or price, if his product is do phd, differentiated), but he has no direct control over other variables which are likely to (or do) affect his profits. In truth, the profit of each oligopolist is the art history paper result of the interaction of the decisions of all players in the market. Since there are no generally accepted behavioural assumptions for oligopolists and duopolists as is found in other market forms, there are diverse patterns of behaviour and many different solutions for oligopolistic and duopolistic markets. Each solution is dissertation help, based on different types of models and art history, each model is based on a different behavioural assumption or a set of get published assumptions. Here we start with one or two simple duopoly models.

The same analysis (solution) can be extended to cover any oligopolistic market. The earliest model of duopoly behaviour is the Cournot model, with which we may start our review of different oligopoly models. Art History? We end with the david essay game theoretic treatment of oligopoly which shows decision-making under conflict. Essay # 4. Models of Oligopoly: The Cournot model (presented in 1838) is based on the analysis of a market in which two firms produce a homogeneous product.

Augustin Cournot (a French economist) noticed that only two firms were producing mineral water for paper sale. He argued that each firm would choose quan­tity that would maximise profit, taking the quantity marketed by its competitor as given. Two main features of the model are: (i) Each firm chooses a quantity of dissertation help juridique output instead of price; and. (ii) In choosing its output each firm takes its rival’s output as given. In Cournot’s model, then, strategies are quantities of output. Here we assume that firms produce a homoge­neous good and know the market demand curve. Each firm must decide how much to art history paper produce, and on aslyum seekers, the two firms make their decisions at art history, the same time. When taking its production decision, each duopolist takes into consideration its competitor. Essay? It knows that its competitor is also de­ciding how much to produce, and the market price will depend on the total output of both firms. The essence of the Cournot model is that each firm treats the output level of its competitor as fixed and then decides how much to produce. Paper? Each Cournot’s duopolist believes that the other’s quantity will not change.

In Fig. 1 when I produces Q M , II maximises its profit by producing 1/4Q C . In order to do phd thesis get published sell Q M plus Q c , the price must fall to P 1 . Here Q M is the mo­nopoly output which is half the competitive output Q c . The inverse demand function, stating price as a function of the aggregate quantity sold, is expressed as: where q 1 and q 2 are the output levels of the duopolists. The total revenue of each duopolist depends upon his own output level as also as that of art history paper his rival: The profit of each equals his total (sales) revenue, less his cost, which depends upon his output level above: The basic behavioural assumption of the Cournot model is that each duopolist maximises his profit on the assumption that the quantity produced by on aslyum his rival is invariant with respect to his own decision regarding output quantity. Duopolist I maximises ? 1 with reference to q 1 , treating q 2 as a parameter, and duopolist II maximises ? 2 , with reference to q 2 , treating q 1 as a parameter. Setting the partial derivatives of paper (3) equal to zero, we get: The first order (necessary) condition of environment essay profit-maximisation requires that each duopolist equates his marginal cost to his marginal revenue. The second order (sufficient) condition of each duopolist requires that. The slope of the marginal revenue curve of art history paper each duopolist must be less than that of the marginal cost curve.

Unlike the two-cost monopolist, where a single individual controls the value of both output levels, in the Cournot model each duopolist maximises his profit with reference to a single variable under his control. This simply implies that the marginal revenues of the duopolists are not necessarily the same. The marginal revenues of the duopolists are: Since the demand curve is downward sloping the duopolist with the greater output will have the smaller marginal revenue (because a duopolist has to reduce price to sell more). The Cournot solution is simple enough. David? In this model, the duopolist market is in equilibrium if the values of q 1 and q 2 are such that each duopolist maximises his profit, taking the output of the art history paper sole rival as a parameter, and neither desires to change his output level. Can Everyone Achieve The American Essay? Thus, there is paper, no conjectural variation in this model.

The optimum solution (equilibrium condition) can be found out in this model by solving (3) for q 1 and q 2 if (4) is satisfied. At this stage we have to introduce an additional step to get a more complete picture of duopoly. Reaction functions which express the output of each duopolist as a function of his rival’s output are determined by seekers solving the first equation of paper (3) for q 1 and the second for q 2 : The reaction function of duopolist I gives a relationship between q 1 and q 2 with the thesis property that, for any specified value of q 2 , the corresponding value of q 1 maximises p 1 . In a like man­ner, duopolist II’s reaction function gives the value of q 2 which maximises p 2 for any specified value of q 1 . An equilibrium solution here is a pair of values for q 1 and q 2 which satisfy both reaction functions. Let us suppose the demand and cost functions of duopolists are: All parameters are positive here.

So the profits of the duopolists are. The corresponding reaction functions are: Since the art history paper parameters B, b 1 q 1 and b 2 , q 2 are all positive, an increase in output of ei­ther duopolist will lead to a fall in the other optimum (profit-maximising) output. The reaction functions are linear as shown in do phd get published, Fig. 2. An equilibrium is art history paper, found out by solv­ing (7), or by essay hotel sorrento the intersection point E of the art history two reaction curves (point E in Fig. Environment? 2). The solution of art history (7) is. The second-order (sufficient) conditions are satisfied by the linear demand and quadratic cost functions:

The restrictions of the Cournot model lies in its basic behavioural assumption regarding the continuing belief that a firm’s only rival will always produce the quantity that is currently being produced. Each duopolist acts on the basis of the assumption that his rival’s output remained fixed. However, this need not necessarily be true. If we assume that equilib­rium is reached through a sequence of finite adjustments, one duopolist sets an output; this induces the hotel other to adjust his output, which, in turn, induces the first to adjust his, and so on. It is quite unlikely that “each will assume that his quantity decisions do not affect his rival’s quantity decision if each of his adjustments is immediately followed by a reaction on the part of his rival”. To be more specific, if equilibrium is assumed to be reached simultaneously, the art history paper optimal quantity of a duopolist is not given by q 1 =f 1 (q 2 ), but by q 1 =f 1 [f 2 (q 1 )] and, similarly for II, since each knows the behaviour pattern of his rival. Alternatively stated, the Cournot model assumes that each duopolist maximises his profit at the assumption that his rival’s price re­mains constant. But this is not a very realistic assumption for a homogeneous product.

As a general rule, duopolists and oligopolists take into consideration their mutual interdependence while taking output decisions. The simple Cournot model can be extended to cover more than two firms. As the number of firms expands, industry output expands according to the relation. where n denotes the number of hotel firms. Clearly, as the number of paper firms increases, n/(n + 1) will approach one, and green environment essay, the industry output (Q) will approach the competitive level (Q c ). Art History Paper? In gen­eral, we can write the duopolists’ profit functions as ? 1 (q 1 , q 2 ) = q 1 D (q 1 +q 2 ) – C (q 1 ) and ? 2 (q 1 , q 2 ) = q 2 D (q 1 + q 2 ) – C (q 2 ) where D is the demand for, and C is the cost function. The first firm chooses a quantity q 1 , where the partial derivatives of ?, with functions to q 1 is equal to zero: Of course, this is an implicit expression for the first firm’s best-response function because it determines the profit-maximising quantity of the first firm (q 1 ) for any value of hotel q 2 . Similarly, the art history paper second firm’s best response function is implicitly defined by.

The Cournot equation is then a pair of quantity q 1 C q 2 C that satisfies both the best-response functions. To operate a cartel successfully, the firms must learn to threaten to on aslyum seekers children punish each other for cheating on the cartel agreement. Let us consider a duopoly consisting of two identical firms such that each firm produces just half the monopoly amount of output where total profits will be maximised and each firm will get a payoff of paper ? p ( say). In order to make this outcome stable, one firm threatens the other in terms of the get published production of output such that if any one of them tries to cheat by producing more than the joint industry profit level of output, then it will be punished by the other firms, who will be producing at the Cournot level of output forever. This is paper, known as a punishment strategy.

Now we assume that cheating occurs, and essay sorrento, the punishment is carried out. As the ultimate optimal response to Cournot behaviour is the Cournot behaviour, it will result in each firm receiving a per-period profit of, say ? c , such that. where ? c > Cournot payoff. We suppose that each of the two firms is producing at art history paper, the collusive monopoly level of output. If a firm produces more output, deviating from reed essay its quota of production, the art history paper level of its profit is such that. and it is the standard temptation facing a cartel member.

Each firm has an incentive to capitalize on the high price by increasing its production, if each one restricts output and raises the price and for this there can be a punishment for cheating. Clearly, if a firm produces at the cartel amount, each one gets a steady flow of green essay payments of ? p . Thus, the present value of this flow today can be given by: Present Value of art history paper cartel behaviour – ? p + ? p /r. The firm gets a one-time benefit of profit, ? d , if it produces more than the can everyone achieve essay cartel amount. This results is the art history paper reversion to Cournot behaviour: Here the numerator of david reed essay this fraction is positive, as the monopoly profits are larger than the art history Cournot profits, and the deviation is even more profitable than sticking with the monopoly quota which helps the denominator to essay be positive.

The inequality suggests that as long as the rate of interest is quite small, it will be profitable for the firms to adhere to their quotas, so that the prospect of future punishment is sufficiently important. The Bertrand model was developed in paper, 1883 by service the French economist Joseph Bertrand. Paper? Like the Cournot model, it applies to do phd get published firms that produce the same homogeneous good and art history paper, make other decisions simultaneously. This change may affect market outcome dramatically. The Bertrand model substitutes price ? 1 and ? 2 for quantities q 1 and thesis seekers children, q 2 as the variables to be chosen.

Thus, the Cournot and Bertrand equilibrium are logical first cousins. What is the first firm’s demand function if it takes its rivals’ price p 2 as given? The first firm will anticipate that if it charges a price higher than its rivals’ (p 1 p 2 ), everyone will buy from its rival. If the first firm charges a lower price than its rivals’ (p 1 p 2 ), however, everyone will buy from it. And if it charges a price equal to paper its rivals’ (p 1 = p 2 ), the firms will divide the david reed market among them. The dia­gram for this profit function is shown in Fig. 3. Here OM is the marginal cost of producing the art history paper commodity. The second firm’s price is p 2 . The first firm’s profit function is composed of three segments. When p 1 p 2 , the seekers first firm captures the paper entire mar­ket, and its profit increases as its price increases.

When p 1 p 2 , the two firms split the total profits equal to distance CA, and each makes a profit equal to CB. When p 1 p 2 , the first firm’s profit is zero because it sells nothing when its price exceeds the second firm’s price. The Bertrand model has been criticised on two main grounds. Essay Hotel? First, when firms produce a homogeneous good, it is more natural to compete by setting quantities rather than prices. Paper? Second, even if firms do set prices and choose the help service juridique same price (as the model predicts), what share of total sales will go to each one? The model assumes that sales would be divided equally among the firms, but there is no reason why this must be the art history paper case. However, despite these shortcomings, the Bertrand model is useful because it shows how the equilibrium out­come in an oligopoly can depend crucially on the firms’ choice of do phd strategic variable. The Stackelberg model (presented by the German economist Heinrich von Stackelberg) is art history paper, a modified version of the Cournot model.

In the Cournot model, we assume that two duopolists make their output decisions at the same time. The Stackelberg model examines what happens if one of the firms can set its output first. The Stackelberg model of duopoly is different from the Cournot model, in which neither firm has any opportunity to react. The model is based on the assumption that the can everyone the american dream profit of each duopolist is a function of the output levels of both: The Cournot solution is art history paper, found out by maximising ? 1 with reference to dissertation help juridique q 1 , assuming q 2 to be constant and ? 2 with reference to art history paper q 2 , assuming q 1 to environment essay be constant. In general, each firm might make some other assumption about the art history response (reaction) of its only rival. In such a situation, profit-maximisation by the two duopolists requires the fulfillment of the following two condi­tions:

The terms of ?q 2 /?q 1 and ?q 1 /?q 2 represent what economists call the conjectural variation, i.e., the do phd get published assumed response of each firm to the output of its lone rival. If firms make wrong assumptions about art history paper each other’s responses, (2) will not represent an improvement over the Cournot model. The Stackelberg model contains one of the more interesting set of assumptions about essay con­jectural variation based on the analysis of leadership and followership. A follower obeys his reaction function q 1 =f 1 (q 2 ) or q 2 =f 2 (q 1 ) and adjusts his output level with a view to art history paper maximising his profits given the quantity decision of his rival, when he assumes to be a leader. But a leader does not obey his (the follower’s) reaction function. He simply assumes that his rival acts as a follower, and maximises his profit, given his rival’s reaction function.

If the can everyone the american dream essay first duopolist acts as a leader, he assumes his rival’s reaction function is valid and, therefore, substitutes this relation into art history, his own profit function. The first duopolist’s profit is now a function of q 1 alone. So it can be maximised with respect to this single variable. The second duopolist can also determine the maximum profit from thesis on aslyum leadership on the assumption that the art history first one obeys his reaction function and acts as a follower. The first duopolist’s maximum profit from followership is can everyone achieve dream essay, determined by substituting his rival’s optimum leadership output level in his reaction function. Similarly, the paper second duopolists’ maximum profit from followership is determined by david reed substituting the first duopolist’s optimum leadership output level in his reaction function. This kind of ‘first mover advantage’ occurs in many strategic situations. Each duopolist determines his maximum profit levels from both leadership and followership and art history paper, seeks to thesis play the role which yields the larger maximum.

Stackelberg thinks of four possible outcomes: (1)1 desires to be a leader and 2 a follower; (2) 2 desires to art history be a leader and 1 a follower; (3) both desire to be leaders; and. (4) both desire to be the followers. The first outcome results in a consistent behaviour pattern and, therefore, a determinate equilibrium (assuming that the first and second order conditions for essay maximum are fulfilled in all cases). Similarly, the second outcome results in a determinate equilibrium. Paper? But if both desire to act as followers, their expectations are not fulfilled, since each assumes that the other will take the leadership role. Comparison with Cournot Model: Even in terms of the Stackelberg model, the Cournot solution is achieved if each desires to green environment essay act as a follower, knowing fully well that the other will also take a follower’s role.

Otherwise, one has to change his behaviour pattern and act as a leader before attaining equilibrium. If both desire to art history paper act as leaders, each assumes that the other’s behaviour is essay, governed by his reaction function, but, in fact, neither of the reaction functions is obeyed. Paper? Consequently, a Stackelberg disequilibrium situation is encountered, which, in Stackelberg’s view, is the most frequent outcome. However, if Stackleberg was correct, the situation will result in quantity market-sharing war, and equilibrium will not be achieved until one has succumbed to the leadership of the achieve the american essay other or a collusive agreement has been reached. However, by using this model, it is possible to show that each duopolist can receive a greater profit from leadership. Art History Paper? So it is quite obvious that both desire to act as leaders. The Cournot and green environment essay, Stackleberg models are alternative representatives of oligopolistic behaviour.

Which model is the more appropriate depends on the industry. Art History? In an industry where all firms are more or less identical, none of which has a pricing advantage or leadership position, the essay hotel Cournot model is probably the more appropriate. On the other hand, some industries are dominated by a large firm that usually takes the paper lead in reed essay, introducing new products or setting price—the mainframe computer market is an example, with IBM as the leader. Then the Stackelberg model may be more realistic. Duopolists (or oligopolists) often recognise their mutual interdependence and agree to act to­gether (in collusion) in order to maximise the total profit of the art history paper industry. Collusive model of can everyone achieve essay oligopoly shows what happens when oligopolists do decide to paper collude on a joint strategy. Reed? In such situations, both output levels are under a single control, and the industry is, in effect, a monopoly. Let us suppose we represent total revenue as. Total profit is.

This type of profit function is found in case of art history a two-plant monopolist. Here we substitute two plants by two producers. The first order condition of profit-maximisation requires that marginal cost of each producer be equated to marginal revenue for output as a whole. In this model, the profit levels of two duopolists are determined as the basis of their indi­vidual profit functions. However, joint profit-maximisation or the final distribution of the reed ag­gregate profit is largely the matter for negotiation between the duopolists. Like the Cournot equilibrium, the Bertrand equilibrium is individually rational, but collec­tively irrational. Again, firms of the art history Bertrand equilibrium have a clear incentive to collude. Does this mean that the green essay collusive model makes better sense of oligopoly than do the Cournot and Bertrand models? Not necessarily.

On the one hand, if firms find themselves at a Cournot or a Bertrand equi­librium, they have a clear incentive to collude. On the other hand, if firms manage to force a collusive agreement, there is a clear private incentive for each party to art history cheat on essay, the collusive agreement. In the Cournot model, the individual incentive to cheat on art history paper, a collusive agreement increases as the number of parties to the agreement increases, which means that the larger the number of firms in an industry, the less likely is a collusive equilibrium. If the number of firms is large enough, some firm or firms will succumb to thesis on aslyum seekers the temptation to cheat, thereby destroying the collusive agreement. The Market-sharing Solution : Some economists have analysed the nature of oligopolistic interdependence in case of art history paper differen­tiated products. In truth, product differentiation is likely to occur with duopoly and oligopoly as with monopolistic competition. If duopolists produce differentiated products we can think of a type of conjectural variation (different from the one assumed by Stackleberg). This form of conjectural variation assures that duopolist 2 desires to maintain a fixed share of the total sales of a differentiated product, regardless of the effects of his actions on his short-run profits.

He is mainly concerned with the do phd long-run advantages that can be gained from maintaining a given market share. A quantity change on the part of duopolist I will be immediately followed by a proportionate change on the part of duopolist II. The relation is: where k is duopolist II’s market share, will always hold. Here duopolist I is a market leader in the sense that his actions will always be followed by duopolist II in art history, a predetermined manner. Substituting from reed (1) for q 2 , Thus, duopolist I’s profit is a function of his own output (q 1 ) and may be maximised with reference to this single variable as long as duopolist II reacts to maintain his market share. In 1939, Paul Sweezy presented the kinked demand curve model to demonstrate clearly that some duopolistic and oligopolistic markets are characterised by infrequent price changes. Sweezy has argued that in most real-life oligopoly markets firms usually do not change their price- quantity combinations in response to art history paper small shifts of their cost curves as is normally found in most market situations. The kinked demand curve model is consistent with the behaviour of firms. Starting from an initial price-quantity combination, if one of the duopolists lowers his price (increasing his quantity), the other is assumed to react by lowering his price (increasing his quantity) in order to maintain his market share. If one of the duopolists raises his price, his rival is assumed to leave his own price unchanged and, thereby, increases his share of the can everyone the american dream market.

Price cuts are matched, but price increases are not. Since implicit collusion tends to art history be fragile, oligopolistic firms often have a strong desire for stability, particularly with reference to price. This is why price rigidity is a characteristic of oligopolistic industries. Unless there are substantial changes of costs or demand, firms hesitate to change price. If costs fall or market demand declines, oligopolists fear that lower prices might give the wrong signal to help their competitors and initiate some sort of price war.

And if cost or demand rises, they are reluctant to raise prices because they are afraid that their competitors may refuse to art history paper raise prices. This price rigidity forms the basis of the kinked demand curve model of oligopoly. Accord­ing to this model, each firm faces a demand curve kinked at current prevailing price P?, as shown in essay hotel sorrento, Fig. Art History Paper? 4. At prices above P the essay hotel demand curve is highly elas­tic because price increase is not matched. So the paper exist­ing firm will lose its market share considerably. On the dream essay other hand, the firm believes that if it lowers its price below P?, other firms will make matching price cuts, because they do not lose their market share.

Thus, for price increase, the demand curve is inelastic. Art History? In that case, sales will expand only to the extent that a lower market price increases total market demand. Thus, nei­ther price cut, nor price increase is desirable. In each case, the firm loses. Since the firm’s demand curve is kinked, its combined marginal revenue curve is can everyone the american dream, discon­tinuous. Art History? This means that the firm’s cost can change without leading to price change. In this figure, marginal cost could increase but would still equal marginal revenue at the original out­put level. Sorrento? This means that price remains the same.

The kinked demand curve model fails to art history explain oligopoly pricing. Dissertation Service? It says nothing about how marginal revenue firms arrived at the original price P? to start with. In fact, some arbitrary price is taken as both the starting and end point of our journey. Why firms did not arrive at some other price remains an open question. It just describes price rigidity but cannot explain it. In addition, the art history paper model has not been supported by empirical tests. Dream Essay? In reality, rival firms do match price increases as well as price cuts. Market-sharing Price Leadership : Oligopolists often collude—jointly restrict supply to raise price and art history, cooperate. This strategy can lead to environment essay higher profits. Collusion is, however, illegal. Moreover, one of the art history main impedi­ments to implicitly collusive pricing is the fact that it is difficult for firms to agree (without talking to each other) on what the price should be.

Coordination becomes particularly problem­atic when cost and demand conditions—and, thus, the ‘correct’ price—are changing. However, benefits of cooperation can be enjoyed without actually colluding. One way of do phd doing this is paper, through price leadership. Price leadership may be provided by a low-cost firm or a dominant firm. In this context, we may draw a distinction between price signalling and price leadership. Price signalling is a form of implicit collusion that sometimes gets around this problem. For example, a firm might announce that it has raised its price with the expectation that its competi­tors will take this announcement as a signal that they should also raise prices.

If competitors follow, all of the firms (at least, in the short run) will earn higher profits. At times, a pattern is established whereby one firm regularly announces price changes and other firms in the industry follow. This type of strategic behaviour is called price leadership— one firm is implicitly recognised as the ‘leader’. The other firms, the ‘price followers’, match its prices. This behaviour solves the the american problem of coordinating price: Everyone simply charges what the leader is art history, charging. Price leadership helps to achieve the american dream overcome oligopolistic firms’ reluctance to art history paper change prices—for fear of being undercut. With changes in cost and demand conditions, firms may find it increas­ingly necessary to thesis seekers children change prices that have remained rigid for some time.

In that case, they wait for art history the leader to signal when and by how much price should change. Sometimes a large firm will naturally act as a leader; sometimes different firms will act as a leader from time to time. In this context, we may discuss the dominant Firm model of leadership. This is known as market- sharing price leadership. In some oligopolistic markets, one large firm has a major share of do phd get published total sales while a group of smaller firms meet the residual demand by supplying the remainder of the market. The large firm might then act as a dominant firm, setting a price that maximises its own profits. The other firms, which individually could exert little, if any, influence over paper price, would then act as perfect competitors; they all take the price set by the dominant firm as given and produce accordingly. But what price should the can everyone the american dream dominant firm set? To maximise profit, it must take into account how the art history paper output of the other firms depends on the price it sets. Fig.

5 shows how a dominant firm sets its prices. A dominant firm is get published, one with a large share of total sales that sets price to maximise profits, taking into account the supply response of smaller firms. Here D is the market demand curve and S F is the supply curve (i.e., the aggregate marginal cost curves of the smaller firms, called competitive fringe firms). The dominant firm must determine its demand curve D D . This curve is just the difference between market demand and the supply of art history paper fringe firms. For example, at price P 1 , the supply of fringe firms is green environment, just equal to market demand.

This means that the dominant firm can sell nothing at this price. At a price P 2 or less, fringe firms will not supply any of the good, in which case, the dominant firm faces the art history paper market demand curve. If price lies between P 1 and P 2 , the help juridique dominant firm faces the demand curve D D . The marginal cost curve of the dominant firm corresponding to D D is MR D . The dominant firm’s marginal cost curve is MC D . In order to maximise its profit, the dominant firm produces quantity Q D at the interaction of paper MR D and MC D . From the demand curve D D , we find P 0 . At this price, fringe firms sell a quantity Q F , thus the total quantity sold is Q T = Q D + Q F . 7. Collusive Oligopoly: The Cartel Model : Various models have been formulated to explain the children strategic behaviour of firms in an oligopolistic market. Art History? A price (cut-throat) competition exists among the thesis get published rivals who try to oust the others from the market. Sometimes there ex­ists a dominant firm that acts as the leader in the market while the others just follow the leader. As a result, there happens to be a clear possibil­ity of the formation of a cartel by the rival firms in an oligopolistic market in order to eliminate competition among themselves.

This is art history paper, termed as “collusive oligopoly” because the firms some­how manage to combine together in can everyone achieve the american dream essay, order to be­have collectively as a single monopoly. Now let us see graphically what incentives the paper firms get for forming a cartel. In Fig. 6, the market demand curve is hotel sorrento, given by the D M the art history total supply curve is the horizontal summation of the marginal cost curves of all existing firms in the industry, which is denoted by essay sorrento MC M . The market equilibrium is attained at the point of intersection between the D M (demand curve) and art history, the marginal cost curve MC M , if the firms compete with each other. OP M is the do phd equilibrium price at which the paper total output of the industry is OQ M . In order to green essay determine its own quantity, each firm equates this price to paper its marginal cost. The sum of the quantities of the service firms is OQ. If the firms form a cartel in order to act as a monopolist, the price rises to OP ‘ M and the quantity is reduced to art history OQ ‘ M to be in equilibrium. Now, when the quantity is get published, being reduced by art history paper Q M Q’ M , then all the firms together save the cost represented by the area below the MC M curve which is Q M E M F M Q ‘ M . Thus, a rise in price due to a reduction in the quantity is followed by a decrease in the total revenue represented by essay the area below the MR M curve, i.e., area Q M G M F M Q’ M . This, in turn, shows that the cost saved exceeds the loss in art history, revenue and, so, all the firms taken as a whole can increase their profit represented by the area E M F M G M . The prospect of earning this extra profit actually acts as the do phd incentive to form a cartel in the oligopoly market structure. Since the cartel is formed, all firms agree together to produce the total quantity OQ’ M . In order to carry this out, each and every firm is art history paper, allotted a quota or a certain portion of production such that the sum of all quotas is equal to OQ M . For this, the best way of quota allotment would be to treat each firm as a separate entity (plant) under the same monopolist.

Thus, all the green environment essay firms have the same marginal cost (MC) such that MC = MR (marginal revenue). Finally, the total profit is maximised because the total output is produced at paper, the minimum cost. Each and reed essay, every firm can increase its profit by reducing the art history paper profits of other firms, simply by can everyone the american dream increasing its output quantity above the allotted quota. The system of cartel formation must guard against the desire of individual firms to violate the quota and the cartel breaks down when the cost of guarding against quota violation is very high. The OPEC is an example of collusive oligopoly or cartel in which members (producers) explicitly agree to art history paper cooperate in thesis, setting prices and paper, output levels. All the green essay producers in an industry need not and often do not join the cartel. But if most producers adhere to art history paper the cartel’s agree­ments, and on aslyum seekers, if market demand is sufficiently inelastic, the cartel may drive prices well above competitive levels. Two conditions for success:

Two conditions must be fulfilled for paper cartel success. First, a stable cartel organisation must be formed whose members agree on price and production levels and both adhere to david that agreement. The second condition is the potential for monopoly power. A cartel cannot raise price much if it faces a highly elastic demand curve. If the potential gains from art history cooperation are large, cartel members will have more incentive to share their organisa­tional problems. Analysis of thesis on aslyum children Cartel Pricing: Cartel pricing can be analysed by using the dominant firm model of oligopoly. It is because a cartel usually accounts for paper only a portion of total production and must take into account the supply response of competitive (non-cartel) producers when it sets price. Thesis Get Published? Here we illustrate the OPEC oil cartel. Fig. 7 illustrates the case of OPEC.

Total demand TD is the world demand curve for crude oil, and S c is the art history paper competitive (non-OPEC) supply curve. The demand for OPEC oil D 0 is the difference between total demand (TD) and competitive supply (SC), and MR 0 is the corresponding marginal revenue curve. MC 0 is thesis children, OPEC’s marginal cost curve; OPEC has much lower production costs than do non-OPEC producers. Art History? OPEC’s marginal revenue and marginal cost are equal at quantity Q 0 , which is the quantity that OPEC will produce. Here we see from OPEC s demand curve that the price will be P 0 . Since both total demand and non-OPEC supply are inelastic, the demand for OPEC oil is also fairly inelastic; thus the cartel has substantial monopoly. Thesis Get Published? In the 1970s, it used that power to drive prices well above competitive levels. In this context, it is important to distinguish between short-run and long-run supply and demand curves. The total demand and non-OPEC supply curves in paper, Fig.

7 apply to short-or intermediate-run analysis. In the help service long run, both demand and supply will be much more elastic, which means that OPEC’s demand curve will also be much more elastic. We would thus expect that, in the long run, OPEC would be unable to art history maintain a price that is so much above the competitors’ level. Dissertation Juridique? In truth, during 1982-99, oil prices fell steadily, mainly because of the art history long- run adjustment of green environment demand and non-OPEC supply. However, cartel is not an paper, unmixed blessing. Essay? No doubt cartel members can talk to paper one an­other in order to formalize an agreement.

But it is not that easy to reach a consensus. Different members may have different costs, different assessments of market demand, and even different objectives, and they may, therefore, want to set prices at david, different levels. Furthermore, each member of the cartel will be tempted to “cheat” by lowering its price slightly to capture a larger market share than it was allotted. Most often, only the paper threat of a long-term return to competi­tive prices deters cheating of this sort. But if the green profits from cartelization are large enough, that threat may be sufficient. Essay # 5. Sales (Revenue) Maximisation : W.J. Baumol presented an paper, alternative hypothesis to profit maximisation, viz., sales (revenue) maximisation. He has suggested that large oligopolistic firms do not maximise profit, but rather maximise sales revenue, subject to the constraint that profit equals or exceeds some minimum accepted level.

Various empirical studies support Baumol’s hypothesis. And it accurately cap­tures some aspects of oligopolistic firms’ behaviour. Most important, when firms are uncertain about their demand curve they actually face, or, when they cannot accurately estimate the marginal costs of their output (due to uncertainty about essay sorrento factor prices, or when they produce more than one product), the decision to try to maximise sales appears to be consistent with their long-term survival. Paper? This is why many oligopolist firms seek to achieve the american dream maximise their market share in order to protect themselves from the adverse effects of uncertain market environment. A revenue-maximising oligopolist would choose to produce that level of output for art history paper which MR = 0. When MR = 0, TR is maximum. That is, the oligopolist should proceed to the point at which selling any extra unit(s) actually leads to a fall in TR. Thesis Get Published? This choice is art history paper, illustrated in Fig. 8. For the firm which faces the green essay demand curve D, TR is maximum when output is q s . For q q s , MR is positive. This means that selling more units increases TR (though not necessarily profit). Art History Paper? For q q s , however, MR is the american, negative.

So further sales actually reduce TR because of paper price cuts that are necessary to induce consumers to buy more. We know that. MR = 0 if e p = 1, in which case TR will be maximum. TR is constant in a small neighbourhood of that output quantity at M 1 P = 0, TR is maximum, and when TR is maximum, e p = 1. We may now compare the revenue-maximisation choice with the profit-maximising level of output, q s . At q p , MR equals marginal cost MC in Fig. 8. Dissertation Service Juridique? Increasing output beyond q p would reduce profits since MR MC. Even though TR continues to increase up to q s , units of paper output beyond q p bring in less than they cost to produce. Since marginal revenue is positive at q p , equation (1) shows that demand must be elastic (e p 1) at this point. Essay # 6. Constrained Revenue Maximisation : A firm that chooses to maximise TR is can everyone achieve essay, neither taking into account its costs nor the paper profitabil­ity of the output that it is selling. And it is quite possible that the output level q s in Fig.

8 yields negative profit to the firm. However, it is not possible to any firm to survive for ever with negative profits. So it may be more realistic to assume that firms do meet some mini­mum level (target rate) of profit from get published their activities. Thus, even though oligopolists may be prompted to produce more than q p with a view to maximising revenue, they may produce less than q p units in order to ensure an acceptable level of profit. They will, therefore, behave as constrained revenue maximises and will choose to produce an output level which lies between q p and q s . Let us assume that a unique unrestricted maximum profit ? m exists at the output q p with R'(q r ) 0, C”(q) 0 for q q r , and art history paper, R” (q) 0 for q 0. If ? 0 ? m , (2) cannot be satisfied and the maximum-revenue problem has no solution. A solution will exist if ? 0 ? m . The American Dream? If ? 0 = ? m is q r is the art history maximum solution since it is the only output that satisfies (2). If ? 0 ? m , revenue will increase and profit will decrease as q is increased beyond q r Thus, the oligopolist will continue to get published increase q until either (i) he reaches the art history paper unrestricted maximum of juridique R(q); or (ii) (2) is satisfied as an equality, whichever occurs as the art history lower output.

If (i), (3) states that R (q) = 0 and ? = 0. If (ii) happens short of the output for (i), C'(q) R'(q) 0 and ? 0. The multiplier ? gives the rate at which revenue can be expanded per rupee of profit sacrificed. An example will make the idea clear. Essay? Suppose an oligopolist faces a linear demand curve p = 100 – 4q and his cost function is C = 50 + 20q. Assume that Rs 334 = ? 0 ? m = Rs 350. How much profit has to be sacrificed per unit of revenue? The unrestricted maximum for R(q) is art history, Rs 625 which occurs at q = 12.5 with ? = Rs 325. Thesis? This option may be excluded because it yields too low a profit. The equality of (2) is (100 – 4q 2 ) – (50 + 20q) = Rs 334.

It may also be expressed as: The quadratic equation has the roots 8 and 12 with respective total revenues of Rs 544 and Rs 624. Paper? Thus, the revenue-maximising oligopolist produces 12 units which he sells at a price of Rs 52 to gain a total revenue of Rs 624 and can everyone the american essay, a profit of Rs 334. By contrast, a profit-maximising oligopolist produces 10 units which he sells at a price of paper Rs 60 to gain a total revenue of Rs 600 and a profit of Rs 350. Green Essay? From (3), ? = 0.25. So the oligopolist sacrifices at the marginal rate of Rs 4 of profit to earn extra rupee of sales revenue. The theories of duopoly and oligopoly lead to compact mathematical solutions with the cal­culus method. However, the various models developed are based on arbitrary (and often unrealistic) assumptions about each firm’s beliefs about rivals’ reactions to art history its actions. The theory of games, developed by environment essay J. von Neumann and O. Morgentern, is an alternative ap­proach that has been applied to markets in which there are few sellers with interdependent outcomes. Art History? Here we restrict ourselves to non-cooperative, or competitive games, known as two-person zero-sum games. The game theory has been developed to determine a rival’s most profitable counter-strategy to one owns ‘best’ moves and to formulate the appropriate defensive measures.

A game is any situation in essay hotel sorrento, which players (the participants) make strategic decisions, i.e., decisions that take into art history, account each one’s actions and responses, e.g., firms competing against reed each other for setting prices or spending money on advertising. Strategic decisions result in payoffs to the players: outcomes that generate rewards or benefits. For price-setting firms, the payoffs are profits. A duopoly game consists of a single move on art history paper, the part of each firm. In this context, we define a few key terms: A strategy is a rule or plan of action for get published playing the game; it is the art history specification of thesis a particular move for one of the participants. Art History Paper? The strategy of a duopolist may consist of select­ing a particular value for each of the variables under his control.

If price is dissertation service juridique, his only strategic variable, a strategy consists of selecting a particular price. If price and advertising expenses are both variables, a strategy consists of setting specific values for both the variables. Each duopolist is assumed to have a large but a limited number of strategies, in which case there is no possibil­ity of continuous variation of the action variables. The final outcome of the art history paper duopolistic game is the profit earned by each of the participants. This is determined from the relevant cost and do phd get published, demand functions once each firm has selected its own strategy. A key objective of the game theory is to determine the optimal strategy for each player. The optimal strategy for art history a player is the one that maximises his expected pay-off.

There are two criteria of classifying duopolistic games: (i) The number of participants; and. (ii) The net outcome. Since game theory is essentially a theory of do phd get published deci­sion-making involving conflict the first criterion simply involves a counting of the number of participants with conflicting interests. Here we discuss any two-person games. The per­sons are like players of chess or card. In this case, there are the two duopolists, and each one is trying to outguess his rival. The second criterion allows us to a draw a distinction between zero-sum and non-zero-sum games. A zero-sum game is one in which the art history sum of the out­comes—e.g., profits—for all the participants equals zero for every possible combination of strategies. The economic games that firms play can be either cooperative or non-cooperative. In a cooperative game, players can negotiate binding contracts that allow them to plan join strategies.

In a non-cooperative game, negotiation and enforcement of binding contracts are not possible. In any game, however, the most important aspect of strategic decision-making is david essay, understanding one’s opponent’s point of view, and (assuming one’s opponent is rational), deducing his likely responses to actions. Two-person zero-sum games are competitive (non-cooperative) in nature. The reason is art history paper, that if one player always loses what the thesis other wins, there can be no room for cooperation. A two-person zero-sum game can be applied to a duopolistic market in art history, which one partici­pant’s gain always equals the loss of the other.

In general, if I has m strategies and hotel sorrento, II has n strategies, the art history possible outcome of the dissertation help service game is given by the following payoff matrix which shows what I will receive as a result of each possible combination of strategy choice by himself and by II: where the a ij is I’s profit if I employs his ith strategy and II employs his jth. In case of zero-sum sum, the corresponding profit earned by II is – a ij . Duopolists adopt two approaches, viz., maximin and minimax. I can make the best of the situ­ation aiming at the maximum of the minimal payoffs. This decision rule is art history paper, called a maximin strategy. Similarly, the best of II’s most pessimistic payoff is called II’s minimax strategy. Let us consider the following payoff matrix: If I employs his first strategy and get published, II employs his second, I’s profit is 40, and II’s is – 40. If I employs his second strategy and II employs his third, I’s profit is – 10 and paper, II’s is david, 10.

The duopolist’s decision problem consists of choosing an optimal strategy. I desires the outcome (40) in the first row and second column of (2), and II desires the outcome (- 10) in the second row and art history, third column. The final outcome depends upon the american dream essay the strategies of both duopolists, and neither has the power to art history paper enforce his desires. If I selects his first strategy, II might select his fourth, and the outcome would be 5 rather than 40. Essay? If II selects his third strategy, I might select his first, and the outcome I would be 20 rather than -10. The theory of paper games postulates behav­iour patterns which allow the determination of equilibrium in these situations.

The decisions of the duopolists are consistent and the equation is achieved if. If (3) holds, the strategies of I and II are respectively, called an equilibrium pair of strate­gies. In example (2), suppose I employs his first strategy. If II anticipates I’s choice, I’s profit will be 5. If I employed his second strategy, and II anticipated his choice, his profit would be -10. II will employ his fourth strategy and his loss will be limited to 5. Every other column of (2) has a maximum greater than 5. In this case, The duopolists’ decisions are consistent, and an equilibrium is established. Neither duopolist can increase profit by changing his strategy if his opponent’s strategy remains unchanged.

An equilibrium point in terms of a payoff matrix is called a saddle point. However, the coinci­dence of maximin-minimax strategy payoffs does not always occur. There are some cases in which the david payoff matrix possesses no equilibrium pair. To understand this problem, we have to introduce the concept of dominance. A dominant strategy is paper, one that is optimal—no matter what an opponent does. In general, the ith row dominates the hth if a ij ? a hj for all j, and a ij a hj for at least one j. A rational duopolist will never employ a dominant strategy. If he does, no equilibrium pair will exist. However, when every player has a dominant strategy, we call the outcome of the game an equilibrium in dominant strategies. Equilibrium in dominant strategies refers to the outcome of a game in do phd get published, which each firm is doing the best it can, regardless of art history what its competitors are doing. In such a game, each player’s optimal strategy can be determined without worrying about the actions of the essay other players.

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Essay: K .MANIA (PVT) Limited Company. Contents of paper marketing plan. Part: 1 Executive Summery. Part: 2 Purposes and dissertation help service, Mission. Part: 3 Situational Analyses. ‘ Product Market Analysis.

Part: 4 Strategy and objective. Part: 5 Technical programmed. Part: 6 Budget performance analysis implementation. ‘ Budget and analysis. Part: 7 Additional considerations. The report explain the art history marketing plan for thesis get published launching a fresh juice named Pep up This product has been made by the K.MANIA (PVT) Limited Company is improved from the ministry of art history health.

In the beginning of the report we have explained the mission and vision of the K.MANIA (PVT) Limited Company. And then we have future carried out our. It will be introduce in the market with the help of various promotional display advertisements and distribution of fee samples to the general public and help service juridique, financial institution. This report examine that this product is initially launching in Lahore’s domestic market the study included both primary and secondary research. The primary study focused on a survey of the competitors and the liking and disliking of the people. Through this strategy company can penetrate more into the market and can attract the bulk customers. For the art history paper purpose we have contracted SWOT analysis of the green essay company to see company’s strength, weakness opportunities and threats. Then we have explained the purpose benefits and objectives of the product. Then we have made a marketing mix strategy for our product. We have divided market into different segment and decided to target customers of all ages. We have also paid special attention to packaging color and paper, price of the sorrento product.

We have decided to art history place the do phd product in all the art history paper markets of essay Punjab specially canteen of college and universities. We will promote our product through various means of advertisement. Art History Paper. We shall also conduct market survey in essay near future to paper know the opinion of the environment public about art history paper, our product and developed our product accordingly. The Mania (Pvt) Company. ‘Be the global leader in customer value’ ‘To set world class standard in juice industry through providing a diverse range of high quality products that are prepared in according with Islamic principals serving to satisfy customers tasting and need and serving the dream society’ The K.Mania in Lahore. The Mania will commence its operation in Lahore from February 2011. Paper. The factory facility has been founded on sorrento 25 canal area of land in paper the industrial area ferozepur Road Lahore. The factory is expected to do phd thesis get published match the demand of our product. We have ensure the installation of art history paper modern sophisticated and efficient equipment confirming to the very latest standard of ‘Good Manufacturing Practices’

Introduction To ‘Pep up’ People started too perished under the scorching the heat of summer in thesis children our country they need of art history energy drink to refresh themselves Pep up is david reed, a fresh juice product. It provide energy and keep fresh when feel weak and tired after doing lot of work in whole day. It contains vitamin and proteins which is useful energy sources. Vitamins gives freshness and proteins are the energy cells that are recharge the human body so they work at their maximum. The students employee and workers all field of humans become tired due to the work burden and sunlight which make them feel lose. Art History Paper. They need an energy drink that make them energize so they may be able to perform better again and do phd, feel fresh. ‘ Mango apple pine apple banana grapes mix. ‘ To increase market shares.

‘ To increase the length of product line. ‘ To increase profit. ‘ To satisfy customer. ‘ To face the strong competitors. Current Market Situations. ‘Pep up’ is fresh juice product that is going introduce in Lahore domestic market. We are focusing to all levels are generation. The price of Pep up is moderate because it is for art history paper all.

The consumer of thesis get published ‘Pep up’ consists of the paper followings: ‘ A zone (Gull berg, MM Alam road, Defense) ‘ B zone (Garden town, Model town, Wahdat road ) ‘ C zone (Moon market, Multan road, Allama Iqbal town) ‘ D zone (Upper mall, Railway station, Dharma Pura. The Pep up is thesis children, currently facing very competitive environment. Paper. Because already in market following compotators are: The PEP UP is available in 250ml size and in achieve the american different flavors. PEP UP Competitors. The competitors of paper PEP UP are more than ten. Shezan and nestle are leading market right now and other companies are also have a great image in market. Environment. Shezan and art history paper, nestle have loyal customer in all over the Pakistan because both are from so many years in market.

Our aim to dissertation compete our all competitors in short period of art history paper tome. Our main competitors are and. ‘ Good distributions channel. ‘ Standard and dissertation help, attractive packing. ‘ Large production and paper, market coverage. ‘ Availability in various weights packing. Minimum price of essay juice is art history paper, 15 R.s.

Shezan has a large market share in Pakistan. (Year ending Jan 2010) 2728709000. They promote this product through. a. Electric media. d. Wall chalking. Nestle beverages is product by nestle international. Qualities of nestle. a. large promotion and market coverage. b. Can Everyone Achieve The American Essay. large range of flavors. c. Art History. high availability.

Nestle has a large market share in hotel sorrento Pakistan. Change vs. June 2008. Sales Reported Jan-June 2009 Organic growth Reported Constant currencies. Group 52267 +3.5% -1.5% +2.8% Food #038; beverages 48313 +3.4% -2.0% +2.7% Group 14.1% _ +30 bps +30 bps. Food #038; beverages 12.4% _ +10bps +20 bps. Earning per share. Underlying CHF 1.46 _ +3.5% +8.5% All calculations based on non-rounded figures.

‘ Creating share value global forum. ‘ By offering different flavors. SWOT Analysis of K. Mania. ‘ Updated technology plant. ‘ Specialist available for specialize task jobs. ‘ Hire experience staff. ‘ Medical income of employee. ‘ Targeted to low and middle class people. ‘ Expiry date above six months. ‘ New in art history juice industry.

‘ Small distribution network. ‘ Limited experience of environment essay customers. ‘ Increase the distribution network. ‘ Acquiring the new technology. ‘ Market is very big and attractive. ‘ Take over paper, the distributor. ‘ Increase demand of hotel high quality of product due to Lahore being a develop city.

‘ New entrance of exiting competitors. ‘ So many competitors. ‘ Increase of general sales tax. ‘ Development of plant. Marketing Strategy and Objectives. The marketing strategy is paper, based on positioning of product in the mind of consumers. ‘ Providing high quality juice to the customers. ‘ We will distribute our product on mass level so that we can maximize the get published profitability. 1. Positioning strategies. We want to put our image an on in the consumers mind as compare to competitor’s product. We want to target the high school’ collage and graduate students and art history, government sector that have to work hard and david reed essay, need to ‘Refresh’ them an art history paper, instant,

We made the market segmentation on following basses. ‘ Rural and semi urban areas. ‘ Socioeconomic classification (SEC) ‘ Attitude towards the product. We will target the dissertation following customers.

1. Art History Paper. Product strategy. ‘ Develop the can everyone dream essay long term relationship with customers. ‘ Give values to the customers to art history paper delighting them. ‘ Do whatever it task not satisfy the customers but retain our customers. In order to accomplish this objective, the company has established sales, marketing and support teams. Our product would be available in following flavors. The name of our product is ‘PEP UP’ High quality assurance would be our first priority. David. This would be ensured by. ‘ Implementing high quality standards.

‘ Total quality management. ‘ Acquisition of high quality raw materials. Pep up is the art history paper sweet, Pep up juice with an eye catching tetra pack. Here are some features of our product. ‘ Fresh original fruit juice. ‘ Provide proteins and minerals. ‘ Beneficial for kidney. ‘ Excellent in taste. ‘ Tetra pack protection packing. High quality assurance would be our first priority-high performance would be: ‘ Implementing high quality standards.

‘ Total quality management. ‘ Acquisition of high quality raw mate. Product units are packed in 6-layered Tetra Brick Aseptic. Our product is dissertation help, available in 250 ml pack. Our price includes custom services and art history, other expenses. Passage through its life cycle changes its price strategy. To attain large market share prices should be at moderate level to seek attraction of can everyone essay large number of paper consumer. Pricing in Pakistan Rupees. Fruits cost Rs 3/- Factory over head Rs 5/-

Miscellaneous Rs 2/- Retailer margin Rs 2/- Total price Rs15/- According to our above pricing plan we have decided to thesis on aslyum offer the product to customers at Rs.14.The price is very much competitive and paper, offer is feasible enough to catch a large percentage of market shares. PRICE AND QUALITY GRID: This grid shows what pricing strategy a firm is perusing; HIGH PRESENTATION PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT. According to the above grid we are offering high quality with low rate.

Actually promotion is the first step when we are launching a product. But we make its strategy in last because we want our good image in the mind of our customers. Criteria for promotion: Our main objective to green environment provide: Core sources of promotion: CHENNEL TIME DURATION TOTAL. GEO Prime time #038; Post prime time 1 min 1215000. DUNIYA NEWS Prime time #038; Early day 1 min 180000. AJJ NEWES Early day #038; Prime time 1 min 175000.



IQBAL TOWN 30”90 1 MONTH 1000000. GULBERG 30”90 1 MONTH 200000. LOCATION TIME COST. GULBERG 6:00pm to 10:00pm 30000. MULTAN ROAD 10000. Scheme Mor 25000. Wapda Town 20000. Following are the additional benefits which are offering to the customers to give them values: ‘ Give five rappers and get one juice pack. ‘ Purchase ten pack #038; get one free juice. ‘ If you purchase one crate of juice then you would able to participate in paper lucky draw for following:

To assure the hotel sorrento availability of its product * PEP UP * juice has established affective dealer network. The main target of these juices is Lahore. The end consumer would then purchase ‘fresh ‘from the retailer. Paper. The distributors are the the american most reliable distributor in the region. S. No Description Amount. 1 Cost of art history land 25000000. 2 Raw material 5000000. 3 Stationary 50000.

4 Office expenses 100000. 5 Furniture 500000. 6 Staff salaries 50000. 7 Freight inward charges 60000. 8 Repair #038; maintenance 150000. 9 Research #038; development 90000.

10 Technology 1000000. 11 Marketing #038; media expenses 6648630. This is the thesis on aslyum children main and last element of the art history marketing planning by reed using this we can check the standard of our product for the purpose of correcting any error if occurs. There are three main functions are performed under this element of planning: We can check marketing condition through meaning in art history which different type of task may be performed like. Survey for do phd thesis the future: In order to learn weather people would like to paper buy our product, we have decided to conduct a market survey in future so that we can assure that people like our product or not. In controlling process we compare our product with our standards.

If any problem occurs then correcting process will take place in witch we found that from where the problem will arises. 1. Marketing organization: Pep up’s chief marketing officer, hold overall responsibility for all the company’s marketing activities so. There are other subordinates with him to help the do phd sales campaigns, trade and consumer sales promotion, and public relation efforts. 2. Action programs: The ‘PEP UP’ will be introduced in May .following are summaries of the programs we will use during this summer session to achieve our stated objectives. May we will initiate 80,00,000 rupees trade sales promotion campaign to educate dealers and generate excitement for the product launch , and paper, provide sample crates to juridique our selected product reviewers, opinion leader and celebrities as part of art history our public relation strategy. June we will start with integrate print /television campaign.

The campaign will show how many features the ‘Pep up’ have for users to reenergize them. July as the juice advertisement continues, we will add consumer sales promotion by including them to our message. We will also support or retailer to increase our sales. August we plan to roll out get published, a new advertisement having new views of customer through survey who have used our drink which ill help to promote our juice. NAEEM MANSOR FROM MARKETING DEPARTMENT.

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